DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20205205

Senna Makki and the COVID-19 pandemic: a reflection from Pakistan

Sahil Kumar, Ramsha Naeem, Anum Syed Tauqir Radhawi, Syed Uzair Mahmood, Zehra Batool, Syed Roshaan Ahmed Naqi

Abstract


The outbreak of the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) since December 2019 has created an unprecedented state. As it is a new variant of a virus treatment options are not only limited but require painstaking trials to confirm their effectiveness. Due to the lack of awareness in many developing countries people have started using herbal medications, used for various other diseases, to combat COVID-19. Misleading information on social media regarding “Senna Makki” has gone viral in Pakistan. However, consumption of Senna Makki is not advised as a treatment option for COVID-19 due to its many harmful associated side-effects. Although its use in other diseases is evident, trials to confirm its effectiveness against COVID-19 need to be prioritized as the public has started consuming Senna Makki in high doses and without monitored prescription.  


Keywords


COVID-19, Pandemic, Senna Makki, Herbal Treatment

Full Text:

PDF

References


WHO. WHO Director-General’s Opening Remarks at the Media Briefing on COVID19-March 2020 (WHO, 2020)

Wu F, Zhao S, Yu B, Chen YM, Wang W, Song ZG, et al. A new coronavirus associated with human respiratory disease in China. Nat. 2020;579(7798):265-9.

Coronavirus reaearch center. Available at: https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/map.html. Accessed on 25 July 2020.

Sharma A, Sharma SK, Shi Y, Bucci E, Carafoli E, Melino G, Bhattacherjee A, et al. BCG vaccination policy and preventive chloroquine usage: do they have an impact on COVID-19 pandemic?. Cell Deat Disea. 2020;11(7):1-0.

Miller A, Reandelar MJ, Fasciglione K, Roumenova V, Li Y, Otazu GH. Correlation between universal BCG vaccination policy and reduced morbidity and mortality for COVID-19: an epidemiological study. MedRxiv. 2020.

World Health Organization. Scientific Brief–Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination and COVID-19. 2020. Available at: https://www. who. int/news-room/commentaries/detail/bacille-calmette-gu% C3% A9rin-(bcg)-vaccination-and-covid-19. Accessed on 20 May 2020.

Faust L, Huddart S, MacLean E, Svadzian A. Universal BCG vaccination and protection against COVID-19: critique of an ecological study. J Club Coronavirus Past Prese Futu. 2020;1.

DAWN. News. Available at: https://www.dawn.com/news/1557883. Accessed on 25 August 2020.

Sultana S, Ahmad M, Zafar M, Khan MA, Arshad M. Authentication of herbal drug Senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl.): A village pharmacy for Indo-Pak Subcontinent. Afric J Pharma Pharmacol. 2012;6(30):2299-308.

Franz G. The senna drug and its chemistry. Pharmacology. 1993;47(1):2-6.

Medical News today. Drug- Drug interaction Available at: https://www.medicalnewstoday .com/articles/320659#what-are-the-druginteractions. Accessed on 02 September 2020.

Rx List. Senna. Available at: https://www.rxlist.com/senna/supplements.htm. Accessed on 25 August 2020.

Hardcastle JD, Wilkins JL. The action of sennosides and related compounds on human colon and rectum. Gut. 1970;11(12):1038-42.

Floral Health. Herb Encyclopedia. Availablr at: https://www.florahealth.com/us/herb-encyclopedia/cascara/#:~:text=The%20active%20glycosides%20are%20hydrolyzed,6%2D12%20hours%20to%20occur. Accessed on 25 August 2020.

The News. Grwoing demand of herbs. Available at: https://www.thenews.com.pk/print/669097-growing-demand-drives-herb-prices-up. Accessed on 25 August 2020.

Tribune Fact Check: Sana Makki- a cure for Covid-19? Available at: https://tribune.com.pk/story /2234073/tribune-fact-check-sana-makki-cure-covid-19. Accessed on 25 August 2020.

Kshirsagar AD, Panchal PV, Harle UN, Nanda RK, Shaikh HM. Anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic activity of anthraquinone derivatives in rodents. Int J Inflammat. 2014;2014.

Andersen DO, Weber ND, Wood SG, Hughes BG, Murray BK, North JA. In vitro virucidal activity of selected anthraquinones and anthraquinone derivatives. Antivir Resea. 1991;16(2):185-96.

Panigrahi GK, Yadav A, Mandal P, Tripathi A, Das M. Immunomodulatory potential of rhein, an anthraquinone moiety of Cassia occidentalis seeds. Toxicol Lett. 2016;245:15-23.

Khanal P, Patil BM, Chand J, Naaz Y. Anthraquinone derivatives as an immune booster and their therapeutic option against COVID-19. Natur Produc Bioprospect. 2020:1-1.

Overview of Senna. Available at: https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-652/senna. Accessed on 25 August 2020.