DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20205160

A comparative study between calcium intake and low bone density among women (19-35 year) in urban area of Hyderabad, India

Uzma Nabeela Syeda, Nasreen Syeda

Abstract


Background: This paper is aimed at assessment of bone health in women aged between 19-35 years in the urban area leading a sedentary lifestyle. The objective of the study was to assess the bone density among the adult women and identify their risk of developing osteoporosis and to associate risk factors that may predispose them to osteoporosis.

Methods: The methodology involved assessment of their anthropometric measurements and calculating Body mass index to identify obese and non-obese participants. A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was framed to know the calcium intake of the diet along with the other nutrients and foods that favour and hinder the absorption of calcium was also studied along with their frequency of consumption. BMD test on all 51 participants is done and the T- score obtained compared with the WHO classification.

Results: It was observed that 35% of the participants were having osteopenia, a condition where bones become weak than normal and may predispose to osteoporosis. The calcium content of the diet found to be lower than the RDA which is significant at p<0.05. Correlation analysis showed a weak negative correlation between the two variables i.e., calcium intake and bone mineral density rs=-0.03, p>0.05. Other factors that can contribute to the low bone mineral density was lack of exercise, obesity, genetic inheritance, H/o PCOS, hypothyroidism, consumption of coffee and carbonated beverages.

Conclusions: Thus, it is concluded that these women are at risk of developing osteoporosis so dietary modification and change in lifestyle is necessary.


Keywords


Bone mineral density, Calcium deficiency, Osteoporosis, Osteopenia

Full Text:

PDF

References


An. YH, Martin KL. Handbook of histology methods for bone and cartilage. Totowa, USA; Humana Press. 2003:33-72.

NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms. National Cancer Institute. 2020 Available at https:// www. cancer.gov/ publications/ dictionaries/ cancer-terms/ def/ bone-mineral-density. Accessed on 5 April 2020.

Siris ES, Miller PD, Connor BE, Faulkner KG, Wehren LE. Identification and fracture outcomes of undiagnosed low bone mineral density in postmenopausal women: results from the national osteoporosis risk assessment. JAMA. 2001;286:2815-22.

Kanis JA, Borgstrom F, Laet C. Assessment of fracture risk. Osteoporosis Int. 2005;16:581-9.

Jiang Y, Zhang Y, Jin M, Gu Z, Pei Y. Aged-related changes in body composition and association between body composition with bone mass density by body mass index in chinese han men over 50-year-old. PloS one. 2015;10(6):e0130400.

Kanis JA, Gluer CC. An update on the diagnosis and assessment of osteoporosis with densitometry. Osteoporosis Int. 2000;11:192-202.

Blake GM, Fogelman I. The role of DXA bone density scans in the diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis. Postgraduate Med J. 2007;83(982):509-17.

Caffeine and Coffee. Nestlé. 2020. Available at https:// www. nestle. in/ nhw/ nutrition-basics/ foods/caffeine-fact. Accessed on 8 April 2020.

Lakshmi S, Macro B. Minerals. In: Nutrition Science, 4th ed., New Age International (P) Limited Publishers. 2012.

Kim D, Lim H, Chang S, Kim JN, Roh E. Association between body fat and bone mineral density in normal-weight middle-aged Koreans. Korean J Family Med. 2019;40(2):100-5.

Salamat MR, Salamat AH, Abedi I. Relationship between weight, body mass index, and bone mineral density in men referred for dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan in Isfahan, Iran. J Osteoporosis. 2013;20:59-63.

What is osteopenia? 2020. Available at https:// forums. webmd. com/ 3/ osteoporosis-exchange/ forum/748. Accessed on 11 April 2020.

Migliaccio S, Greco EA, Fornari R, Donini LM. Is obesity in women protective against osteoporosis? Diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity. Targets Therapy. 2011;4:273-82.

Gera M, Kalra S, Gupta P. Caffeine intake among adolescents in Delhi. Indian J Community Med. 2016;41(2):151-3.

Wickham K. Phosphorus content in commonly consumed beverages. J Renal Nutr. 2014;24(1):1-4.