Influence of patient related factors on health seeking behaviours among men with lower urinary tract symptoms attending surgical outpatient clinic at Meru Level Five Hospital, Kenya

Festus Mwendia Muriuki, Consolata Kirigia


Background: Currently there are increased cases of men presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) especially in low resource countries. The purpose of this study was to establish the influence of patient related factors on health seeking behaviors for LUTS among men attending surgical outpatient clinic at Meru hospital, Kenya.

Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study design was used. Population involved 120 men suffering from LUTS, 2 physicians and 2 nurses. Questionnaires and interview guides were used for data collection. Study period was from August 2018 to March 2020.

Results: Patients (67.0%) were aged between 61-70 years. Primary education level (68.8%). Farmers (72.0%) with income level of below Kenyan Shilling (Ksh.) 20,000. Logistic regression was used whereby p values (p≤0.05). The inferential statistics pointed out that patient related factors test items had a statistical significant influence since the p values were found to be less than 0.05 at 95% confidence interval.

Conclusions: There was a significant negative influence of patient related factors such as lack of knowledge, low income levels and distance to health care facilities on health seeking practices. Patients sought medical attention when quality of their lives had been threatened. The study recommends adopting measures of rising awareness on need for seeking early medical attention and initiate outreach health services in underserved areas or through telehealth.


Patients, Factors, Health seeking behavior, LUTS

Full Text:



Parsons JK. Benign prostatic hyperplasia and male lower urinary tract symptoms: Epidemiological risk factors. Curr Bladder Dysfunction Rep. 2010;5(4):212-8.

Nehilchare O, Kasivisvanathan V, Ellis H, Challacombe B. Anatomy, physiology of large Prostate. The Big Prostate Springer, Cham, Switzerland. 2017.

Irwin D, Kopp Z, Agatape B, Milson I, Abram P. Worldwide prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms, overactive bladder, urinary incontinence and bladder outlet obstruction. BJU Int. 2011;108:1132-9.

Soler R, Gomes C, Averbeck M, Koyama M. Prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms in Brazil. J Neurol Urodynamic. 2017;37(4):1356-64.

Huafan Y, Alex T, Yi-Hsiu Y, Kuochen K. Health care-seeking behavior in benign prostatic hyperplasia patients. J Urol Sc. 2017;28(3):169-73.

Ojewola W, Ezekiel S, Olanrewaju S, Ezra O, Taiwo A. Lower urinary tract symptoms: prevalence perceptions and health care seeking behavior amongst Nigerian men. Afr J Online. World J Men’s Health. 2016;34(3):200-8.

Stothers L, Adrew J, Francis B, Sharif M, Jonathan B. Association between the severity of obstructive lower urinary tract symptoms and care seeking behavior in rural Africa, Uganda Public Library of Science France. 2017;12(3).

Michellekinng AA, Faithfull S. Routes to diagnosis for men with prostate cancer: men's cultural beliefs about how changes to their bodies and symptoms influence help-seeking actions. Eur J Oncol Nurs. 2017;30(1):48-58.

Ugwumba F, Ozoema O, Okoh A, Echetaba K, Mbadiwe O. Transvesical prostatectomy in the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia in a developing country. Niger J Clin Prac. 2014;17(6).

Ministry of Health Kenya. National Reproductive Health Strategy 2009-2015. 2010. Available at: Accessed on: 20 July 2020.

Wallner L, Slezak J, Loo R, Quinn V, Eeden S, Jacobsen S. Progression and treatment of incidence of Lower urinary tract symptoms among men in the California men’s health study. Br J Urol Int. 2014;115(1):127-33.

Olapade O, Owoaje E, Lapido M, Fadimu O, Muoka O, Adedeji T. Frequency and patterns of lower urinary tract symptoms in a screened population of men above 40 years in Ibadan south west Nigeria. J West Afr Coll Surg. 2015;5(4):60-78.

Francis B, Lynn S, Vancouver B, Jonathan B, Adrew J. Prevalence estimates for lower urinary tract symptoms severity among men in Uganda & Sub Saharan Africa based on regional prevalence data. Cana Urol Assoc J. 2018;12(11):447-52.

Stranne J, Damber JF, Hammarsten J, Knutson T, Peeker R. One-third of the Swedish male population over 50 years of age suffers from lower urinary tract symptoms. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2008;43(3):199-205.

Kirigia C, Gitonga L, Muraya MM. Barriers to Immediate Post-Partum Intra-Uterine Contraceptive Device Uptake among Mothers Delivering at Meru Hospital. Open J Obstetr Gynecol. 2019;(9):312-25.

Kirigia C, Gitonga L, Muraya MM. Facilitators to Immediate Post Partum Intra Uterine Contraceptive Device Uptake among Mothers Delivering in Meru Hospital. Open J Obstetr Gynecol. 2019;(9):417-41.

Kirigia C. Cervical cancer screening during the COVID-19 crisis: Africa view point. 2020. eCancer expert opinion news. Available at: Accessed on: 20 July 2020.