DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20204348

Study the frequency of bronchial anthracosis and its influencing factors in patients undergoing bronchoscopy in Ardabil city hospital, 2013-2015

Saeid Hoseininia, Susan Mohammadi- Kebar, Keysan Ghadam- Kheir

Abstract


Background: Bronchial anthracosis is defined as appearance of multiple dark anthracotic pigmentations on large airway mucosa with or without airway narrowing or obliteration. This study aims to investigate the frequency of bronchial anthracosis and its influencing factors in patients undergoing bronchoscopy.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, data was obtained from reviewing the files of 900 patients who underwent bronchoscopy in Ardabil city Hospital. Those with dark pigmentation on their airways mucosa were considered as having bronchial anthracosis. During bronchoscopy, samples were collected from the airways in the form of bronchoalveolar lavage and then the smear and culture of these samples were examined for acid fast bacilli. Type of fuel used for cooking in the kitchen and for heating in their house, history of smoking, the patient’s geographical location and occupation were recorded by a checklist and then evaluated.

Results: Of 900 cases, 42 (4.6%) had bronchial anthracosis, out of which 23 (55%) were male and most were in urban areas. Majority of patients were in the age range of 60 to 70 years. Of 11 farmers with anthracosis, 7(6.63%) patients used fossil fuels for heating. Among the anthracosis patients, 11 (21.2%) subjects had Tuberculosis. There was a significant difference between age, habitant of patients, pulmonary tuberculosis and bronchial anthracosis.

Conclusions: There was a significant correlation between age of patients, pulmonary tuberculosis and bronchial anthracosis, therefore, performing necessary tests and follow-ups for pulmonary tuberculosis is necessary in cases that undergo bronchoscopy for any reason and those with bronchial anthracosis.


Keywords


Bronchial anthracosis, Bronchoscop, Pulmonary tuberculosis

Full Text:

PDF

References


Amoli K. Anthracotic bronchopathies. Eur Respir J. 2013;18(22):527.

Mirsadraee M, Saeedi P. Anthracosis of lung: evaluation of potential underlying causes. J Bronchol Interv Pulmonol. 2005;12:84-7.

Stradling P. Diagnostic bronchoscopy. 5th edn. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1986:369-385.

Searl A, Nicholl A, Baxter PJ. Assessment of the exposure of islanders to ash from the Soufriere Hills volcano, Montserrat, British west Indies. Occup Environ Med. 2002;59:523-31.

Castranova V, Porter D, Millecchia L, Ma JY, Hubbs AF, Teass A. Effect of inhaled crystalline silica in a rat model: time course of pulmonary reactions. In: Oxygen/Nitrogen Radicals: Cell Injury and Disease Springer, Boston, MA; 2002:177-184.

Murthy BS. Silicosis, anthracosis and predisposition to pulmonary tuberculosis in cement industry. Antiseptic. 1952;49(4):297-9.

Akazaki K, Inagaki Y. On the experimental anthracosis, anthrocosilicosis and the relationship of these to tuberculosis in complication. Tohoku J Exp Med. 1959;71:195-207.

Barnes P. Diagnostic latent tuberculosis infection. Turning glitter in to gold. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2004;170:5-6.

Amoli K. Bronchopulmonary disease in Iranian housewives chronically exposed to indoor smoke. Eur Respir J. 1998;11:659-63.

Wynn GJ, Turkington PM, O’Driscoll BR. Anthracofibrosis, bronchial stenosis with overlying anthracotic mucosa: possibly a new occupational lung disorder: a series of seven cases From one UK hospital. Chest. 2008;134:1069-73.

Poyraz B, Kaya A, Ciledag A, Oktem A. Surgical treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis associated with anthracosis and silicosis in coal miners. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1961;41:281-90.

Pazoki M, Moazami GH, Hashemi TA, Seifirad S, Nematollahi N, Paknejad O. Prevalence of tuberculosis in patients with anthracosis: study on 150 subjects. Arch Iran Med. 2012; 15(3):128-30.

Sandoval J, Salas J, Martinez-Guerra ML, Gómez A, Martinez C, et al. Pulmonary arterial hypertension and cor pulmonale associated with chronic domestic woodsmoke inhalation. Chest. 1993;103:12-20.

Rezaei Talab F, Akbari H. Relationship between anthracosis and pulmonary tuberculosis in patients examined through bronchoscopy. J Birjand Univ Med Sci.. 2007; 14 (3) :9-15.

Aslani J, Ghaneei M, Khosravi L. Association of Tuberculosis with Anthracosis, Baghiyatalah Hospital (2001). Tehran Univ Med J. 2002;60(6):460-4.

Mohammad T, Keshmiri M, Ataran D, Ghiasi MT, Azarian A. Tuberculus bronchostenosis presenting as anthracofibrosis. Med J Mashhad Univ Med Sci. 2002;45:73-5.

Razi E, Akbari H, Nematollahi L. Prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis In patients with bronchial anthracofibrosis. J Med Council Iran. 2007;25(3):346-52.

Kim HY, Im JG, Goo JM, Kim JY, Han SK, Lee JK, et al. Bronchial anthracofibrosis (inflammatory bronchial stenosis with anthracotic pigmentation): CT findings. AJR Am J Roentgen. 2000;174(2):523-7.

Chung MP, Lee KS, Han J, Kim H, Rhee CH, Han YC, et al. Bronchial stenosis due to anthracofibrosis. Chest. 1998;113(2):344-50.

Wynn GJ, Turkington PM, O'Driscoll BR. Anthracofibrosis, bronchial stenosis with overlying anthracotic mucosa: possibly a new occupational lung disorder: a series of seven cases From one UK hospital. Chest. 2008;134(5):1069-73.

Kim H, Im J. Bronchial antracofibrosis. Am J Roentgenol. 2000;174(4):523-7.

Grobbelaar JP, Bateman ED. Hut lung: a domestically acquired pneumoconiosis of mixed aetiology in rural women. Thorax. 1991;46(5):334-40.