Plate waste of inpatients with diabetes mellitus

Anggun Rafisa


Background: The nutrition services of inpatient with diabetes mellitus is very important because dietary management is the key to controlling blood glucose level. Ensuring the patient to consume all the food served by the hospital or reduce the plate waste may help patients to meet their nutritional needs. This study aimed to investigate plate waste of inpatient with diabetes mellitus in hospitals and its contributing factors so the quality of food service in the hospital could be enhanced.

Methods: The sample of the study was 22 inpatient with diabetes mellitus at Al Islam Hospital in Bandung, Indonesia from November 2014 to February 2015. The patient's plate waste at breakfast, lunch and dinner for 2 days was weighed using an electronic scale. Patients were also interviewed to find out the reasons for wasting food.  

Results: The overall mean of plate waste in this study was 13.26% of food served. Porridge was the type of food that had the highest mean percentage of plate waste (17.38%). Vegetables were the second-highest wasted food (17.05%). Loss of appetite, lack of knowledge, cold food temperature and large main plate portion were the reasons for food wastage.

Conclusions: The type of food that wasted the most by inpatient with diabetes mellitus was porridge and vegetables. Improving the quality of food service and delivery as well as increasing the role of health workers to educate and encourage patients to eat while under treatment in hospitals are interventions that can be done to reduce the amount of inpatient plate waste.


Diabetes mellitus, Inpatient, Plate waste

Full Text:



Depkes RI. Pedoman pelayanan gizi rumah sakit. Jakarta: Direktorat Jenderal Bina Gizi dan Kesehatan Ibu dan Anak Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. 2013;7-38.

Lassen KO, Olsen J, Grinderslev E, Kruse F and Bjerrum M. Nutritional care of medical inpatients: A health technology assessment. BMC Health Serv Res. 2006;6:7.

Harjodisastro D, Syam AF and Sukrisman L. Dukungan nutrisi pada kasus penyakit dalam. Jakarta: Departemen Ilmu Penyakit Dalam Universitas Indonesia; 2006;115-7.

Depkes RI. Riset kesehatan dasar. Jakarta: Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. 2013.

Depkes RI. Riset kesehatan dasar laporan nasional 2007. Jakarta: Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan Departemen Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. 2008.

Alison B. Evert, Boucher JL, Cypress M, Dunbar SA, Franz MJ, Mayer-Davis EJ, et al. Nutrition therapy recommendations for the management of adults with diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2014;37(1):120-43.

Lukito W, Tambunan V, Gunawan I and Ambarwati FD. Pedoman praktis pemilihan formula nutrisi enteral. Jakarta: Perhimpunan Dokter Spesialis Gizi Klinik Indonesia. 2008:27-31.

American Diabetes Association. Nutrition recommendations and interventions for diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2008;31(1):61-78.

RCN. Nutrition now London: Royal College of Nursing. 2007. Available at: Accessed on: 20 July 2020.

Zakiya MDL, Saimy I, Maimunah AH. Plate waste among hospital inpatients. Malay J Public Health Med. 2005;5(2):19-24.

Djamaluddin M, Prawirohartono EP, Paramastri I. Analisis zat gizi dan biaya sisa makanan pada pasien dengan makanan biasa. Jurnal Gizi Kllnik Indonesia. 2005;1:108-12.

Van Bokhorst-de Van Der Schueren MA, Roosemalen MM, Weijs PJ, Langius JA. High waste contributes to low food intake in hospitalized patients. Nutrition in clinical practice: official publication of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition. 2012;27(2):274-80.

Williams P, Walton K. Plate waste in hospitals and strategies for change. E-SPEN. Eur J Clin Nutr Metab. 2011;6(6):235-41.

NHSE. Managing food waste in the NHS. UK: The National Health Service. 2005.

Donnelley RR. Food in hospitals, national catering and nutrition specification for food and fluid provision in hospitals in Scotland. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government. 2008;2.

Lassen KO, Kruse F, Bjerrum M, Jensen L, Hermansen K. Nutritional care of Danish medical inpatients: Effect on dietary intake and the occupational group’s perspectives of intervention. BMC Health Serv Res. 2004.

Ryan DB, Swift CS. The mealtime challenge: nutrition and glycemic control in the hospital. Diabetes Spectr. 2014;27(3):163-8.

Susyani, Podojoyo, Nilawati NS. Kerugian Biaya dari Sisa Makanan yang Terbuang di Rsup Dr.Muhammad Hoesin Palembang. Widyakarya Nasional Pangan dan Gizi. 2008.

Wang PY, Fang JC, Gao ZH, Zhang C, Xie SY. Higher intake of fruits, vegetables or their fiber reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis. J Diabetes Investig. 2016;7(1):56-69.

Carlos J, Dias J, Imai S. Vegetables consumption and its benefits on diabetes. J Nutritional Therap. 2017;6:1-10.

Thibault R, Chikhi M, Clerc A, Darmon P, Chopard P, Genton L, et al. Assessment of food intake in hospitalised patients: A 10-year comparative study of a prospective hospital survey. Clin Nutr. 2011;30(3):289-96.