Epidemiology of visual impairment: focus on Delta State, Nigeria

John E. Moyegbone, Ezekiel U. Nwose, Samuel D. Nwajei, Joseph O. Odoko, Emmanuel A. Agege, Eunice O. Igumbor


The eyes being the most delicate organs as well as the window of the body to the world make it dysfunction a public health problem. The aim of this study is to review the epidemiology of visual impairment in relation to anaemia, antioxidant vitamins and nutritional status in order to identify and proffer appropriate solution to various factors associated with visual impairment. A systematic review and evaluation of published literatures globally, in sub Saharan Africa and in Nigeria was done through web search and Mendeley reference library. Findings showed that visual impairment increases with increase in age. Gender, race, geographical location, literacy level, income and culture are social demographic factors that influence visual impairment. Refractive error, cataract, glaucoma and age-related macula degeneration (ARMD) are the most common causes of visual impairment worldwide. Over 80% of visual impairment are preventable. Hence, early detection and prompt treatment especially at the primary health care level is the most effective ways to prevent visual impairment.


Visual impairment, Anaemia, Antioxidant vitamins, Nutritional status, Refractive error, Oxidative stress, Primary school age children

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