Prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium infection among students at Al-Agali Islamic complex in Al-Kalakela area, Khartoum State-Sudan

Eltagi A. M. Abdalla, Adnan M. A. Youssouf, Babiker M. H. Ahmed


Background: In Sudan, urinary schistosomiasis caused by S. haematobium is endemic in many areas of the country, mainly among school-age children. The study was done with the aim to determine the prevalence and possible risk factors of S. haematobium among students at Al-Agali Islamic complex in Al-Kalakla- Sudan.

Methods: A total of 102 students were participated. 10 ml of urine sample was taken from each participant, the samples were allowing it to sediment, a drop from sediment was taken and examined microscopically using x40 objective to identify S. haematobium. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics and some risk factors. The data were analyzed used SPSS version20. Chi-square test was used to determine the significance differences between variables. The Odds ratio (OR) was applied with 95% CI.

Results: The prevalence of S. haematobium among students was 12.7% (13/102). The results showed there was no statistical association between socio-demographic variables (Age group, parents’ education, monthly family income and family size) and S. haematobium positivity (p>0.05). Bivariate analysis showed; swimming in rivers (OR= 8.09, 95% CI=1.69-38.73, p=0.008), working in agriculture (OR= 4.42, 95% CI=1.25-15.55, p=0.020), past infection of S. haematobium (OR=4.87, 95% CI= 1.44- 16.45, P=0.010), pre-schistosoma treatment (OR=10.29, 95% CI=2.14-49.39, p=0.003) and don not knew mode of transmission (OR=10.72, 95% CI=1.33-86.01, p=0.025), statistically significant with S. hameatobium positivity.

Conclusion: The S. haematobium is still prevalent among students in study area. Health education on the mode of transmission, possible risk factors and prevention is recommended.


S. haematobium, Khartoum State, Sudan, Prevalence

Full Text:



Singh K, Muddasiru D and Singh J. Current status of schistosomiasis in Sokoto, Nigeria. Parasite Epidemiology and Control. 2016;239-44.

Ismail AHAH, Hong S, Babiker BTA, Hassan AMR, Sulaiman ZAM, Jeong H, et al. Prevalence, risk factors, and clinical manifestations of schistosomiasis among school children in the White Nile River basin, Sudan. Parasites and Vectors. 2014;7:478.

Osman RO, Eisa NS, Nasr AA, Ali OOS, Siddig EE and Mohamed NS. Prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium among School Children in Al-Lamab Bahar Abiad Area, Khartoum State, Sudan 2017: A Cross Sectional Study. EC Microbiology 2018;14.8:454-9.

Angora EK, Boissier J, Menan H, Rey O, Tuo K, Toure AO, et al. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Schistosomiasis among Schoolchildren in two Settings of Cote d’Ivoire. Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2019;4:110.

Otuneme OG, Obebe OO, Sajobi TT, Akinleye WA and Faloye TG. Prevalence of Schistosomiasis in a neglected community, South western Nigeria at two points in time, spaced three years apart. African Health Sciences. 2019;19(1):1338-45.

Kabuyaya M, Chimbari MJ and Mukaratirwa S. Infection status and risk factors associated with urinary schistosomiasis among school-going children in the Ndumo area of uMkhanyakude District in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa two years post-treatment. Int J Infectious Diseases. 2018;71:100-6.

Geleta S, Alemu A, Getie A, Mekonnen Z and Erko B. Prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis and associated risk factors among Abobo Primary School children in Gambella Regional State, southwestern Ethiopia: a cross sectional study. Parasites and Vectors. 2015;8:215.

Akinneye JO, Fasidi MM, Afolabi OJ and Adesina FP. Prevalence of Urinary Schistosomiasis among Secondary School Students in Ifedore Local Government, Ondo State, Nigeria. Int J Trop Dis. 2018;1:004.

Bolaji OS, Elkanah FA, Ojo JA, Ojurongbe O, Adeyeba OA. Prevalence and Intensity of Schistosoma haematobium among school children in Ajase-Ipo, Kwara State, Nigeria. Asian J Biomed and P’ceutical Sci. 2015;5(43):06-11.

Oluwasogo OA and Fagbemi OB. Prevalence and risk factors of Schistosoma haematobium infections among primary school children in Igbokuta Village, Ikorodu North Local Government, Lagos State. IOSR J Nursing and Health Sci. 2013;2(6):62-8.

Nkegbe E. Prevalence of Schistosomiasis among School Children in the Lower River Volta Basin in Ghana. Gomal J Med Sci. 2010; 8(1):54-6.

Moyo VB, Changadeya W, Chiotha S and Sikawa D. Urinary schistosomiasis among preschool children in Malengachanzi, Nkhotakota District, Malawi: Prevalence and risk factors. Malawi Med J. 2016;28(1):10-4.

Kavana NJ. Prevalence of Schistosomiasis Infection among Young Children Aged 5 to 17 Years in Kilosa District, Tanzania: A 3Year Retrospective Review. J Trop Dis. 2018;6:255.

Degarege A, Mekonnen Z, Levecke B, Legesse M, Negash Y, Vercruysse J, et al. Prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium Infection among School-Age Children in Afar Area, Northeastern Ethiopia. PLoS ONE 2015;10(8):e0133142.

Ouedraogo H, Drabo F, Zongo D, Bagayan M, Bamba I, Pima T, et al. Schistosomiasis in school-age children in Burkina Faso after a decade of preventive chemotherapy. Bull World Health Organ. 2016;94:3745.

Senghor B, Diallo A, Sylla SN, Doucouré S, Ndiath MO, Gaayeb L, et al. Prevalence and intensity of urinary schistosomiasis among school children in the district of Niakhar, region of Fatick, Senegal. Parasites and Vectors 2014;7:5.

Elsiddig, HA, Khider E, NourSM, Makhawi AM and Mogadam EBM. Prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis among schoolchildren in White Nile State, Sudan. African Edu Res J. 2019;7(1):29-32.

Salim AMM. Prevalence of Schistosoma Haematobium in Sudan Dry Lan (A case Study at Al-Rahad City, North Kordofan State. Int J Inno and Res in Educ Sci. 2018;5(2):2349-521.

Sady H, Al-Mekhlafi HM, Mahdy MAK, Lim YAL,Lim YAL, Surin J and Mahmud R. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Schistosomiasis among Children in Yemen: Implications for an Effective Control Programme. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7(8):e2377.

Abou-Zeid AH, Abkar TA and Mohamed RO. Schistosomiasis infection among primary school students in a war zone, Southern Kordofan State, Sudan: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2013;13:643.

Naphtali RS, Yaro MB and Arubi M. Prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium among Primary School Children in Girei Local Government Area, Adamawa State, Nigeria. IOSR J Nursing and Health Sci. 2017;6(1):48-50.

Kapito-Tembo AP, Mwapasa V, Meshnick SR, Samanyika Y, Banda D, Bowie C and Radkel S. Prevalence Distribution and Risk Factors for Schistosoma hematobium Infection among School Children in Blantyre, Malawi. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2009;3(1):e361.

Geleta S, Alemu A, Getie S, Mekonnen Z and Erko B. Prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis and associated risk factors among Abobo Primary School children in Gambella Regional State, southwestern Ethiopia: a cross sectional study. Parasites and Vectors. 2015;8:215.

Hajissa K, Muhajir AMA, Eshag HA, Alfadel A, Nahied E, Dahab R, et al. Prevalence of schistosomiasis and associated risk factors among school children in Um-Asher Area, Khartoum, Sudan. BMC Res Notes. 2018;11:779.

Dawaki S, Al-Mekhlafi HM, Ithoi I, Ibrahim J, Abdulsalam AM, Ahmed A, et al. Prevalence and risk factors of schistosomiasis among Hausa communities in Kano State, Nigeria. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2016;58:54.