Published: 2020-07-24

Chronic rhinosinusitis - clinico microbiological profile: a review

Manish Munjal, Shubham Munjal, Devyani Gupta, Siddharth Gupta


The inhaled air at extremes of temperature or sometimes laden with animate aero-pathogens or maybe inanimate aero-allergens, induces a mechanical, thermal or infective trauma respectively, on the nasal and the sinus mucosa. The rhino-sinusitis acute or chronic has multiple underlying aetiologies and presentations. The aetiological factors and primarily the microorganisms show a shift with time. Viruses, aerobic and anerobic bacteria are cultured in individuals with varying levels of immunity.


Bacteria, Drug resistance, Rhinosinusitis

Full Text:



Devaih AK. Adult chronic rhinosinusitis: diagnosis and dilemmas. Otolaryngol Clin N Am. 2004;37:243-52.

Fokkens WK, Lund VJ, Mullol J, Bachert C, Cohen N, Cobo R, et al. European position paper on nasal polyps. Rhinology. 2007;45:1-139.

Report of the Rhinosinusitis Task Force Committee Meeting, Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1997;117:1-68.

Lanza D, Kennedy DW. Adult rhinosinusitis defined. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1997;117:1-7.

International Data Base, US census bureau 2004. Available at: https:// www2. international- programs/ technical-documentation/ methodology/ idb-methodology. pdf. Accessed on 23 February 2020.

Benninger MS, Ferguson BJ, Hadley JA, Hamilos DJ, Jacobs M, Kennedy DW, et al. Adult chronic rhinosinusitis: definitions, diagnosis, epidemiology and pathophysiology. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2003;129:1-32.

Benninger MS, Anon J, Mabry RL. The medical management of rhinosinusitis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1997;117:41-9.

Benninger MS, Appelbaum PC, Denneny JC, Osguthorpe DJ, Stankiewicz JA. Maxillary sinus puncture and culture in the diagnosis of acute rhinosinusitis: the case for pursuing alternative culture methods. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2002;127:7.

Rombaux P, Gigi J, Hamoir M, Eloy P, Bertrand B. Bacteriology of chronic sinusitis: the bulla ethmoidalis content. Rhinology. 2002;40:18-23.

Erkan M, Asian T, Ozcan M, Koc N. Bacteriology of antrum in adults with chronic maxillary sinusitis. Laryngoscope. 1994;104:321-4.

Bolger WE. Gram-negative sinusitis: an emerging clinical entity? Am J Rhinol. 1994;8:279-84.

Ponikau JU, Sherris DA, Kem EB, Homburger HA, Frigas E, Gaffey TA, et al. The diagnosis and incidence of allergic fungal sinusitis. Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 1999;74:877-84.

Rujanavej V, Soundry E, Banaei N, Baron E, Hwang P, Nayak J. Trends in incidence and susceptibility among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from intranasal cultures associated with rhinosinusitis. Am J Rhinol. 2013;27:134-7.

Doyle PW, Woodham JW. Evaluation of the microbiology of chronic ethmoid sinusitis. J Clin Microbial. 1991;29:2396-400.

15- Klossek JM, Dubreul L, Richet H, Richet B, Sedallian A, Beutler P. Bacteriology of the adult middle meatus. J Laryngol Otol. 1996;110;847-9.

James C, James H. The microbiology of chronic rhinosinusitis: Results of a community surveillance study. Ear Nose Throat J. 2001;1:143-5.

Bhattacharyya N, Kepnes LJ. Assessment of trends in antimicrobial resistance in chronic rhinosinusitis. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2008;117:448-52.

Niederfuhr A, Kirsche H, Riechelmann H, Wellinghausen N. The bacteriology of chronic rhinosinusitis with and without nasal polyps. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2009;135(2):131-6.

Genoway KA, Philpott CM, Javer AR. Pathogen yield and antimicrobial resistance patterns of chronic rhinosinusitis patients presenting to a tertiary rhinology centre. J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2011; 40: 232-7.

Xio L, Zheng J, Yang L, Chen J, Lu Y, Lu S, Zhang X. Microbial profile and antibiotic susceptibility of chronic rhinosinusitis. Lin Chung Er Bi y an HouTou Jing WaiKeZaZhi. 2011; 25(15):692-4.

Brook I. Microbiology of sinusitis. Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society. 2011: 90-100.

Leah M, Feazel M.S, Robertson CE, Ramakrishnan VR, Frank DN. Microbiome Complexity and Staphylococcus aureus in Chronic Rhinosinusitis. Laryngoscope. 2012;122:467-72.

Boase S, Foreman A, Cleland E, Tan L, Melton-Kreft R, Pant H, et al. The microbiome of chronic rhinosinusitis: culture, molecular diagnostics and biofilm detection. BMC Infectious Diseases. 2003;13:210.

Farhani F, Mashouf RY, Hashemian F, Esmaeli R.

Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns of Aerobic Organisms in Patients with Chronic Rhinosinusitis in Hamadan, Iran. Avicenna J Clin Microb Infec. 2014;1:e18961.