Epidemiological study of animal bite victims in Central India: a cross sectional institutional study
Keywords:Animal bite, Dog bite, Rabies, India, Epidemiology
Background: Rabies, an invariably fatal viral disease, is transmitted to humans through animal bites, mostly dogs. Of the estimated 25,000 deaths due to rabies in SEAR, a majority are in India and Bangladesh. Objective of the study was to study the epidemiological trend of animal bite by in central India.
Methods: A cross sectional institutional study was conducted in 406 animal bite victims presenting to the tertiary care hospital and district hospital Rewa, Madhya Pradesh, India. Information collected with the pre tested structured questionnaire after obtaining informed verbal consent. Data pertaining to the socio demographic profile of victim, category of bite, provoked/ unprovoked time and place of bite, characteristic of animal was collected. Data was analysed using graph pad software.
Results: Among 406 victims 76.3% were males, 56.7% belongs to 15-45 yrs, 61.6% were living in urban area, 31.3% and 21.7% of the victims were agriculture worker and laborers respectively. 95.8% victims bitten by dog of them 89% were stray, 89.4% had Category III bite, lower extremity was affected in 60.8%, 75.9% bites were unprovoked, fate of the animal was not known in 78.6% and 46% of the victims were affected during evening hours.
Conclusions:Animal bites, especially dog bites still poses public health problem. Majority of the bites are attributed to stray dogs, unprovoked and category III bites. This indicates need of large amount of antirabies serum or HRIG thereby increasing the cost of management of animal bite cases. There is a need to control stray dog population and immunize pet dogs.
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