Published: 2020-06-26

A randomized study on the energy difference measured by electro photonic image on caregivers practiced Indian aesthetic dance and yoga

Jayashree R. Hegde, Sridhar K. Melukote, Karuna Vijayendra, Deepeshwar Singh


Background: Electro photonic image (EPI) technique based on the bio-energy field, is growing as a novel technique in the fields of alternative medicine, conventional practices, psycho-physiology, psychology, and consciousness. In this study, the EPI instrument is used to assess emotional pressure which is termed as activation coefficient (AC), communication energy (C) level of various organ systems, and entropy (E) in the human energy field is assessed in the caregivers (CGs) of children with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs).

Methods: Immediate effect of Indian aesthetic dance (n=31) and yoga (n=30) practices for 75 minutes were assessed in two randomized experimental groups that are later compared with the control group (n=30). The statistical analysis was done using IBM SPSS Version 21.0.

Results: The activation coefficient of intervention groups showed a significant reduction in stress levels (p<0.001). Indian aesthetic dance intervention group showed significant improvement in the energy level of the organ systems namely respiratory, endocrine, musculoskeletal and digestive system (p<0.001); cardiovascular, nervous and immune systems (p<0.01) and yoga group in respiratory, musculoskeletal, nervous system (p<0.001); and cardiovascular, endocrine, and immune system (p<0.01). Both the intervention groups showed a significant reduction in entropy (p<0.001) post-intervention compared to the control group.

Conclusions: The EPI parameters used for CGs of children with NDDs explore the possibility of using this instrument for measuring the bioenergy field that infers the health status of CGs before and after dance and yoga interventions.



CGs, Electro photonic imaging, Gas discharge visualization, Indian aesthetic dance, Neurodevelopmental disorders, Yoga

Full Text:



Ambikile JS, Outwater A. Challenges of caring for children with mental disorders: Experiences and views of caregivers attending the outpatient clinic at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam- Tanzania. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Ment Health. 2012;6:16.

Moritz DJ, Fox PJ, Luscombe PA, Kraemer HC. Neurological and psychiatric predictors of mortality in patients with alzheimer disease in California. Arch Neurol. 1997;54(7):878-85.

Arora NK, Nair MK, Gulati S, Deshmukh V, Mohapatra A, Mishra D, et al. Neurodevelopmental disorders in children aged 2-9 years: Population-based burden estimates across five regions in India. PLoS Med. 2018;15(7):e1002615.

Murphy NA, Christian B, Caplin DA, Young PC. The health of caregivers for children with disabilities: Caregiver perspectives. Child Care Health Dev. 2007;33(2):180-7.

Pinquart M, Sörensen S. Differences between caregivers and noncaregivers in psychological health and physical health: A meta-analysis. Psychol Aging. 2003;18(2):250-67.

Pinquart M, Sorensen S. Correlates of physical health of informal caregivers: a meta-analysis. J Gerontol Ser B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2007;62(2):P126-37.

Lagraauw HM, Kuiper J, Bot I. Acute and chronic psychological stress as risk factors for cardiovascular disease: Insights gained from epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies. Brain Behav Immun. 2015;50:18-30.

Del-Pino-Casado R, Pérez-Cruz M, Frías-Osuna A. Coping, subjective burden and anxiety among family caregivers of older dependents. J Clin Nurs. 2014;23(23-24):3335-44.

Applebaum AJ, Breitbart W. Care for the cancer caregiver: A systematic review. Palliat Support Care. 2013;11(3):231-52.

Martin AC, Candow D. Effects of online yoga and tai chi on physical health outcome measures of adult informal caregivers. Int J Yoga. 2019;12(1):37.

Lamotte G, Shah RC, Lazarov O, Corcos DM. Exercise training for persons with alzheimer’s disease and caregivers: a review of dyadic exercise interventions. J Mot Behav. 2017;49(4):365-77.

Vetter RE, Myllykangas SA, Donorfio LK, Foose AK. Creative movement as a stress-reduction intervention for caregivers. J Phys Educ Recreat Dance. 2011;82(2):35-8.

Milbury K, Mallaiah S, Mahajan A, Armstrong T, Weathers SP, Moss KE, et al. Yoga program for high-grade glioma patients undergoing radiotherapy and their family caregivers. Integrat Cancer Therap. 2018;17(2):332-6.

Milbury K, Liao Z, Shannon V, Mallaiah S, Nagarathna R, Li Y, et al. Dyadic yoga program for patients undergoing thoracic radiotherapy and their family caregivers: results of a pilot randomized controlled trial. Psycho‐oncol. 2019;28(3):615-21.

Loman S. Judith S. Kestenberg’s dance/movement therapy legacy: approaches with pregnancy, young children, and caregivers. Am J Danc Therap. 2016;38(2):225-44.

Kostyuk N, Rajnarayanan RV, Isokpehi RD, Cohly HH. Autism from a biometric perspective. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2010;7(5):1984-95.

Kushwah K, Srinivasan T, Nagendra H, Ilavarasu J. Development of normative data of electro photonic imaging technique for healthy population in India: A normative study. Int J Yoga. 2016;9(1):49.

Kattenstroth JC, Kalisch T, Holt S, Tegenthoff M, Dinse HR. Six months of dance intervention enhances postural, sensorimotor, and cognitive performance in elderly without affecting cardio-respiratory functions. Front Aging Neurosci. 2013;5(Feb):1-16.

Lima CD, Brown LE, Wong MA, Leyva WD, Pinto RS, Cadore EL, et al. Acute effects of static vs. ballistic stretching on strength and muscular fatigue between ballet dancers and resistance-trained women. J Strength Condition Res. 2016;30(11):3220-7.

Subrahmanyam P. Karanas: common dance codes of India and Indonesia. 1st ed. Nrithyodaya, Chennai, India; 2003.

Lee HC, Khong PW, Ghista DN. Bioenergy based Medical Diagnostic Application based on Gas Discharge Visualization. In: 2005 IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology 27th Annual Conference. Vol 7. IEEE; 2005:1533-1536.

Wróbel ILC, Szadkowska I, Masajtis J, Goch JH. Images of corona discharges in patients with cardiovascular diseases as a preliminary analysis for research of the influence of textiles on images of corona discharges in textiles’ users. Autex Res J. 2010;10(1):26-30.

Korotkov K, Williams B, Wisneski LA. Assessing biophysical energy transfer mechanisms in living systems: the basis of life processes. J Altern Complement Med. 2004;10(1):49-57.

Fernández Sánchez H, Hernández CBE, Sidani S, Osorio CH, Contreras EC, Mendoza JS. Dance intervention for Mexican family caregivers of children with developmental disability: a pilot study. J Transcult Nurs. 2020;31(1):38-44.

Ray US, Mukhopadhyaya S, Purkayastha SS. Effect of yogic exercises on physical and mental health of young fellowship course trainees. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2001;45(1):37-53.

Chanda ML, Levitin DJ. The neurochemistry of music. Trends Cogn Sci. 2013;17(4):179-91.

Choudhary DA, Mishra DJ. Effect of 16 weeks yogic intervention in premenstrual syndrome. Int J Pharm Bio Sci. 2013;4(1):207-12.

Surekha R, Archana R, Vijayalakshmi B. Effect of regular dance practice on pulmonary functions and respiratory efficiency in female Bharatanatyam dancers- A pilot study. Int J Res Pharm. 2018;9(4):1268-73.

Yamamoto-Morimoto K, Horibe S, Takao R, Anami K. Positive effects of yoga on physical and respiratory functions in healthy inactive middle-aged people. Int J Yoga. 2019;12(1):62.

Mathad MD, Pradhan B, Sasidharan RK. Effect of yoga on psychological functioning of nursing students: a randomized wait list control trial. J Clin Diagn Res. 2017;11(5):KC01-5.

Manchanda SC. Yoga- a promising technique to control cardiovascular disease. Indian Heart J. 2014;66(5):487-9.

Jeong YJ, Hong SC, Myeong SL, Park MC, Kim YK, Suh CM. Dance movement therapy improves emotional responses and modulates neurohormones in adolescents with mild depression. Int J Neurosci. 2005;115(12):1711-20.

Govindaraj R, Karmani S, Varambally S, Gangadhar BN. Yoga and physical exercise- a review and comparison. Int Rev Psychiatr. 2016;28(3):242-53.

Rehfeld K, Lüders A, Hökelmann A, Lessmann V, Kaufmann J, Brigadski T, et al. Dance training is superior to repetitive physical exercise in inducing brain plasticity in the elderly. PloS One. 2018;13(7).

Ahmadi A, Nikbakh M, Arastoo A, Habibi AH. The Effects of a yoga intervention on balance, speed and endurance of walking, fatigue and quality of life in people with multiple sclerosis. J Hum Kinet. 2010;23(1):71-8.

Sivvas G, Batsiou S, Vasoglou Z, Filippou DA. Dance contribution in health promotion. J Phys Educ Sport. 2015;15(3):484-9.

Yang K. A review of yoga programs for four leading risk factors of chronic diseases. Evidence-based Complement Altern Med. 2007;4(4):487-91.

Gage FH. Mammalian neural stem cells. Science. 2000;287(5457):1433-8.

Hanna JL. The power of dance: health and healing. J Altern Complement Med. 1995;1(4):323-31.

Narayanan C, Korotkov K, Srinivasan T. Bioenergy and its implication for yoga therapy. Int J Yoga. 2018;11(2):157.