DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20201975

Study of psychosocial aspects contributing to stress among women with primary infertility

Banumathy Manikkam, Vijaya Bhargavi

Abstract


Background: Infertility remains a global problem since ages and lot of stigma in society even in the modern era. The burden of psychosocial stress in primary infertility is overwhelming, still there is limited literature regarding this.

Methods: We conducted a prospective study on 300 primary infertile women to determine the prevalence of psychosocial stress and the contributing factors. Data was collected using a semi structured questionnaire through a one-one interview, after narrating the purpose analysed the relationship of various psychosocial factors to infertility related stress.

Results: In the present study, female factor 41%, 25% had male factor, 9% couple with combined factor and 25% with unexplained infertility. Polycystic ovarian syndrome was the most common, 25.6%, and tubal factor 13.3%. The sperm abnormalities and oligozoospermia in 20.3%. Earlier 52% had undergone ovulation induction, 38% had intrauterine insemination and only 10% undergone in vitro fertilization. 23% women and 4% men suffered psychological trauma in the past, 4% women had already been treated for psychiatric problem. We found higher scores for failed period, mind distraction, avoiding social gatherings. Parenthood desire seen in 82%, 8% for continuation of progeny, 7.6% for future security and 2.3% for social obligation. 53% were willing to adopt on failure of treatment. The prevalence of psychosocial stress was 70% in present study.

Conclusions: Understanding the psycho social factors associated with stress helps to alleviate and improve the quality of life. Public health awareness programs and coping strategies are the need of the hour. Encouraging adoption will solve the twin problems of infertility and abandoned kids.


Keywords


Adoption, Infertility, Psychological factors, Stress

Full Text:

PDF

References


World Health Organization. Infecundity, infertility, and childlessness in developing countries. DHS Comparative Reports No 9. Calverton, Maryland, USA: ORC Macro and the World Health Organization; 2004.

Mascarenhas MN, Flaxman SR, Boerma T, Vanderpoel S, Stevens GA. National, regional, and global trends in infertility prevalence since 1990: a systematic analysis of 277 health surveys. PLoS medicine. 2012;9(12):e1001356.

Patel A, Sharma P, Narayan P, Binu VS, Dinesh N, Pai PJ. Prevalence and predictors of infertility-specific stress in women diagnosed with primary infertility: A clinic-based study. J Hum Reprod Sci. 2016;9:28-34.

Domar A, Zuttermeister P, Friedman R. The psychological impact of infertility: a comparison with patients with other medical conditions. J Psychosomat Obstet Gynecol. 1993;14:42-52.

Oddens BJ, Den Tonkelaar I, Nieuwenhuyse H. Psychosocial experiences in women facing fertility problems- a comparative survey. Hum Reprod. 1999;14(1)255-61.

Franco JG Jr, Baruffi RL, Mauri AL, Petersen CG, Felipe V, Garbellini E. Psychological evaluation test for infertile couples. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2002;19:269-73.

Yusuf L. Depression, anxiety and stress among female patients of infertility; A case control study. Pakistan J Med Sci. 2016;32(6):1340–3.

Yusuf L. Depression, anxiety and stress among female patients of infertility; a case control study. Pak J Med Sci. 2016;32(6):1340-3.

Sujatha T, Mary HS. A study to assess the level of stress among women with primary infertility attending infertility clinic at SRM General Hospital. Int J Phar Biol Sci. 2016;6(1):94-9.

Al-yazori MT. The social support as a mediator between the infertility stress and depression among infertile female in the Gaza Strip. IUG J Educ Psychol Sci. 2017;25(3):1-13.

Mousavi S, Najafi Kalyani M, Karimi Sh KR, Piriaee S. The relationship between social support and mental health in infertile women: the mediating role of problem-focused coping. Scholars J Applied Med Sci. 2015;3(1):244-8.

Martins MV, Peterson BD, Almeida V, Mesquita-Guimarães J, Costa ME. Dyadic dynamics of perceived social support in couples facing infertility. Hum Reprod. 2014;29(1):83-9.

Martins MV, Peterson BD, Almeida VM, Costa ME. Direct and indirect effects of perceived social support on women’s infertility-related stress. Hum Reprod. 2011;26(8):2113-21.

Hassan S, Khurshid E, Batool S. Psychological distress experienced by women with primary infertility in Pakistan: Role of psycho-social and cultural factors. NUST J Soc Sci Humanities. 2015;1:56-72.

Namdar A, Naghizadeh MM, Zamani M, Yaghmaei F, Sameni MH. Quality of life and general health of infertile women. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2017;15(1):1-7.

Merwe EVD, Greeff AP. Infertility-related stress within the marital relationship. Int J Sexual Health. 2015;27(4):522-31.

Adewunmi AA, Etti EA, Tayo AO, Rabiu KA, Akindele RA, Ottun TA, et al. Factors associated with acceptability of child adoption as a management option for infertility among women in a developing country. Int J Women’s Health. 2012;4(1):365-72.