Association of respiratory morbidity with duration of work among puffed rice workers in Davanagere city, Karnataka, India

Muhammed Muntazeem G., Madonna J. Dsouza, Varadaraja Rao B. A., Basanth Kumar Patil, Prakash Kengal


Background: Occupational respiratory disease can be defined as an acute or chronic disorder that arises from the inhalation of air-borne agents in the work place. Puffed rice is a famous food item in Karnataka, which is produced in a cluster of small units. Industrial dust inhalation over a long period of time leads to proliferative and fibrotic changes in the lungs.

Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among puffed rice workers in Bashanagar, urban field practice area of SSIMS and RC, Davanagere. From January 2017 to December 2017. The study population included 550 puffed rice unit workers. Data was collected using structured interview along with anthropometric measurements. Spirometry was done by using RMS (Helio’s) Spirometer.

Results: In this study significant association was found between respiratory morbidity and duration of work. The risk of obstructive lung disease was 0.18 (0.03-1.40) times less among workers who worked for <5 years compared to workers who worked for more than 20 years. The risk of restrictive lung disease was 0.35 (CI 0.16-0.77) times lower among workers who worked for <5 years compared to the workers who worked for > 20 years and the association was statistically significant with p value of 0.010.

Conclusions: The risk of respiratory morbidity was significantly associated with increase in the duration of work.


Davanagere, Duration of work, Respiratory morbidity

Full Text:



Oxman AD, Muir DCF, Shannon HS, Stock SR, Hnidzo E, Langi HJ, et al. Occupational dust exposure and chronic obstructive pulmonary Disease. Am Rev Respirat Dis. 1993;148:38-48.

Boyd W, Henly K. Text book of pathology, 10th ed. Wolter Kluwer Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi, India; 2013: 767-768.

The energy and research institute, India. Assessing and mitigating health risks form puffed rice cluster: A case study of Davangere, Karnataka. Centre file: 102463-005. 2006. Available from: Accessed on 3 October 2016.

Ratnaprabha GK, Manjunath. Respiratory morbidities and pulmonary function tests of rice mill workers in a city of Karnataka. J Pub Health Med Res. 2016;4(1):1-5.

Ferris BG. Epidemiology standardization project. II. Recommended respiratory disease questionnaires for use with adults and children in epidemiological research. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1978;118:7-53.

Pellegrino R, Viegi G, Brusasco V, Crapo RO, Burgos F, Casaburi RE, et al. Interpretative strategies for lung function tests. Eur Respirat J. 2005;26(5):948-68.

Rana MC, Naskar S, Roy R, Das DK, Das S. Respiratory morbidity among rice mill workers in an urban area of Burdwan District, West Bengal: A cross-sectional study. Indian J Occup Environ Med. 2018;22:5-10.

Naik PR, Nirgude AS, Megana P. Respiratory morbidity and peak expiratory flow rate among rice mill workers in a rural area of South India. Nat J Community Med. 2017;8(5):246-9.

Ghosh T, Gangopadhyay S, Das B. Prevalence of respiratory symptoms and disorders among rice mill workers in India. Environ Health Prev Med. 2014;19:226-33.

Ajeel NAH, Al-Yassen AK. Work-related allergic disorders among flour mill workers. Med J Basrah Univ. 2007;25(1):29-32.

Pour AR, Pour ER, Asghari M, Zadeh NG, Dehghan SF. Respiratory effects of exposure to flour dust: A case study among workers of flour production factories in Arak. J Paramed Sci. 2015;6(3):79-84.

Ijadunola KT, Erhabor GE, Onayade AA, Ijadunola MY, Fatusi AO, Asuzu MC. Pulmonary functions of wheat flour mill workers and controls in Ibadan, Nigeria. Am J Indust Med. 2005;48(4):308-17.

Prakash S, Manjunatha S, Shashikala C. Morbidity patterns among rice mill workers: A cross sectional study. Indian J Occupat Environ Med. 2010;14(3):91-3.

Abdulsalam ST, Adeshina AI, Salawu M, Tope AJ. Prevalence of respiratory symptoms and lung function of flour mill workers in Ilorin, North central Nigeria. Int J Res Rev. 2015;2(3):55-66.

Tawde PM, Kazi AH, Gunjal SB, Jaiswal AV, Mahaja AA, Khatri SM. Effects of breathing exercise and preventive measure on pulmonary functions in flour mill workers. Int J Health Sci Res. 2015;5(7):241-9.

Mathur ML, Dixit AK. A study of forced vital capacity and its predictors among the sand stone quarry workers. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1999;43(3):347-54.

Rao NM, Saiyed HN, Kashyap SK, Chatterjee SK. Airway obstruction in silicosis workers. Lung India. 1991;9(4):126-1.