Self-reported, self-care activities among type 2 diabetic patients in rural areas of Kancheepuram district, Tamil Nadu: a cross-sectional study
Keywords:Diabetes mellitus, Self-care, Rural area
Background: Diabetes is a chronic condition. The burden of diabetes is, expected to rise to 592 million by 2035. Diabetes self-care activities can have a dramatic impact on lowering glycosylated hemoglobin levels. Hence, this study has been planned to assess the self-care activities among the type 2 diabetes patients in rural areas of Kancheepuram district, Tamil Nadu.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among type 2 diabetic patients residing in rural field practice area of Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Kancheepuram district during May 2019 and June 2019. Personal interview using semi-structured questionnaire including summary of diabetes self-care activities- revised version was conducted.
Results: Majority of the study participants were female and 46.2% were above 51 years of age. Majority had diabetes mellitus for 1-5 years. Of the diabetic self-care activities 68.5% had healthy eating 2-4 times/week. About 33.2% of the participants were not indulged in physical activity as well as high-intensity exercises even for a single day; about 33% had not tested their blood sugar level for even a single time and only 1.5% had checked their feet on all days during the previous week. Higher food scores were found significantly associated with availability of family support for self-care activities (p value 0.020).
Conclusions: Of the diabetic self-care activities the healthy dietary component was followed satisfactorily but exercise, foot care and testing of blood sugar were followed poorly by the study participants.
World Health Organisation (WHO). 2016. Global report on Diabetes. Available at: https://apps. who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/204874/WHO_NMH_NVI_16.3_eng.pdf;jsessionid=E4A09E7B2362142C71E456A811F0B6A8?sequenc. Accessed on 8 December 2019.
Deshpande AD, Harris-Hayes M, Schootman M. Epidemiology of diabetes and diabetes- related complications. Physical Therapy. 2008;88(11):1254-64.
ICMR Guidelines for management of type 2 Diabetes. 2018. Available at: https://medibulletin. com/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/ICMR.diabetes Guidelines.2018.pdf. Accessed on 8 December 2019.
Guariguata L, Whiting DR, Hambleton I, Beagley J, Linnenkamp U, Shaw JE. Global estimates of diabetes prevalence for 2013 and projections for 2035. Diab Res Clin Practice. 2014;103(2):137-49.
Alberti KG, Zimmet PZ. Definition, diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Part 1: diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Provisional report of a WHO consultation. Diab Med. 1998;15(7):539-53.
Anjana RM, Pradeepa R, Deepa M, Datta M, Sudha V, Unnikrishnan R, et al. Prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes (impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance) in urban and rural India: Phase I results of the Indian Council of Medical Research–INdiaDIABetes (ICMR–INDIAB) study. Diabetologia. 2011;54(12):3022-7.
Chatterjee S, Davies MJ. Current management of diabetes mellitus and future directions in care. Postgraduate Med J. 2015;91:612-21.
Shrivastava SR, Shrivastava PS, Ramasamy J. Role of self-care in management of diabetes mellitus. J Diab Metabol Disorders. 2013;12(1):14.
Toobert DJ, Hampson SE, Glasgow RE. The summary of diabetes self-care activities measure: results from 7 studies and a revised scale. Diabetes care. 2000;23(7):943-50.
Manobharathi M, Kalyani P, Arulmani A. Factors associated with therapeutic non-compliance among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Chidambaram, Tamilnadu, India. Int J Community Med Public Health. 2017;4(3):787-91.
Ravi S, Kumar S, Gopichandran V. Do supportive family behaviors promote diabetes self-management in resource limited urban settings? A cross sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2018;18(1):826.
Kushwaha AS, Kumari S, Kushwaha N. Self-care in diabetes: a study amongst diabetics in an urban community. Int J Community Med Public Health. 2016;3:293-8.
Mohandas A, Bhasin SK, Upadhyay M, Madhu SV. Diabetes self-care activities among adults 20 years and above residing in a resettlement colony in East Delhi. Indian J Public Health. 2018;62(2):104.
Rajasekharan D, Kulkarni V, Unnikrishnan B, Kumar N, Holla R, Thapar R. Self-care activities among patients with diabetes attending a tertiary care hospital in Mangalore Karnataka, India. Ann Med Health Sci Res. 2015;5(1):59-64.
Padma K, Bele DS, Bodhare TN, Valsangkar S. Evaluation of knowledge and self-care practices in diabetic patients and their role in disease management. Natl J Community Med. 2012;3:3–6.
Gopichandran V, Lyndon S, Angel MK, Manayalil BP, Blessy KR, Alex RG, et al. Diabetes self-care activities: a community-based survey in urban southern India. Natl Med J India. 2012;25(1):14-7.
Raithatha S1, Shankar SU, Dinesh K. Self-Care Practices among Diabetic Patients in Anand District of Gujarat. ISRN Family Med. 2014;2014:743-1.