Prevalence of hypertension and its risk factors among high school children in Bangalore, India

Srikanth Srirama, Mangala Subramanian


Background: Hypertension is a prominent health disorder that leads to 12.8% of deaths worldwide. Although predominantly considered a disorder of the adults, the roots of hypertension start from childhood. In the past children usually suffered from secondary hypertension. However, now with increased incidence of obesity, reduced physical activity, unhealthy dietary habits, use of tobacco and alcohol among adolescents there is now an increased prevalence of primary hypertension in this age group. The present study was conducted with the objective of assessing the prevalence of hypertension and its modifiable risk factors in high school children.

Methods: The study was conducted among high school students aged 13 to 16 years in urban Bangalore. A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess the lifestyle. Age, sex, height, weight and resting blood pressure were recorded. Odds ratio, Chi square test and logistic regression were used in the analysis.

Results: There were 550 students who participated in the study, 300 (54.54%) were males and 250 (45.45%) were females. The prevalence of prehypertension was 21.6% and hypertension was 8.9%.  Logistic regression revealed that overweight, obesity, high salt intake, tobacco use, and stress were significantly associated with elevated blood pressure.

Conclusions: There is a rise in the prevalence of hypertension among high school students. Changes in lifestyle seem to influence the development of hypertension in this age group. Behaviour change communication should be used to reduce the modifiable risk factors and promote healthy lifestyle among adolescents.


adolescents, pre-hypertension, hypertension, risk-factors, prevalence

Full Text:



World Health Organisation, Adolescent Health and Development. WHO SEARO. Available at: Accessed 4 July 2019.

UNICEF Data: Monitoring the Situation of Children and Women. UNICEF; 2016. Available at: Accessed 4 July 2019.

Montgomery M. Psychosocial Intimacy and Identity: from early adolescence to emerging adulthood. J Adolesc Res. 2005;20:346-74.

Romer D. Adolescent risk taking, impulsivity, and brain development: implications for prevention. Dev Psychobiol. 2012;52:263-75.

World Health Organisation: Non-Communicable Diseases. WHO; June 2017. Available at: Accessed 4 July 2019.

GBD 2017 Risk Factor Collaborators. Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks for 195 countries and territories,1990-2017: a systematic analysis for Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Lancet. 2018;392:1923-94.

Anchala R, Kannuri NK, Pant H, Khan H, Franco OH, Di Angelantonio E, et al. Hypertension in India: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence, awareness, and control of hypertension. J Hypertension. 2014 Jun;32(6):1170.

Singh AK, Maheshwari A, Sharma N, Anand K. Lifestyle associated risk factors in adolescents. Ind J Pediatr. 2006 Oct 1;73(10):901-6.

Chen X, Wang Y. Tracking of blood pressure from childhood to adulthood: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis. Circulation. 2008 Jun 24;117(25):3171.

Kumar J, Deshmukh PR, Garg BS. Prevalence and correlates of sustained hypertension in adolescents of rural Wardha, central India. Ind J Pediatr. 2012 Sep 1;79(9):1206-12.

Bagga A, Jain R, Vijayakumar M, Kanitkar M, Ali U. Evaluation and management of hypertension. Ind Pediatr. 2007 Feb 1;44(2):103-21.

Khadilkar V, Yadav S, Agrawal KK, Tamboli S, Banerjee M, Cherian A, et al. Revised IAP growth charts for height, weight and body mass index for 5-to 18-year-old Indian children. Ind Pediatr. 2015 Jan 1;52(1):47-55.

WHO Global Physical Activity Fact Sheet. WHO; 2018. Available at:, Accessed 4 August 2019.

World Health Organization. Technical Report Series 916- Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases. Geneva: WHO/FAO Expert Consultation; 2003.

Hirshkowitz M, Whiton K, Albert SM, Alessi C, Bruni O, DonCarlos L, et al. National Sleep Foundation’s sleep time duration recommendations: methodology and results summary. Sleep Health. 2015 Mar 1;1(1):40-3.

Roberti JW, Harrington LN, Storch EA. Further psychometric support for the 10‐item version of the perceived stress scale. J Coll Couns. 2006;9(2):135-47.

Soudarssanane MB, Mathanraj S, Sumanth MM, Sahai A, Karthigeyan M. Tracking of blood pressure among adolescents and young adults in an urban slum of puducherry. Ind J Commu Med: Offici Pub Ind Assoc Preven Soci Med. 2008;33(2):107.

Sharma A, Grover N, Kaushik S, Bhardwaj R, Sankhyan N. Prevalence of hypertension among schoolchildren in Shimla. Ind Pediatr. 2010 Oct 1;47(10):873-6.

Borah PK, Devi U, Biswas D, Kalita HC, Sharma M, Mahanta J. Distribution of blood pressure and correlates of hypertension in school children aged 5-14 years from North East India. Ind J Med Res. 2015;142(3):293.

Bala S, Sandeep M, Prasad GKN, Chandrasekhar A. Prevalence and determinants of Prehypertension and Hypertension among urban high school adolescents of Hyderabad. Nat J Res Commu Med. 2017;6:295-9.

Patel U, Patel N, Jain S, Ratre B, Shrivastava S. High blood pressure in school going adolescents: Prevalence and risk factors. Pediatr Rev: Int J Pediatr Res. 2014;1(1):3-9.

Kar S, Khandelwal B. Fast foods and physical inactivity are risk factors for obesity and hypertension among adolescent school children in east district of Sikkim, India. J Natural Sci, Biol, Med. 2015;6(2):356.

Anand T, Ingle GK, Meena GS, Kishore J, Kumar R. Hypertension and its correlates among school adolescents in Delhi. Inter J Preven Med. 2014;5(Suppl 1):S65.

Mangala S, Mini J, Subrahmanyam G. Effectiveness of Behaviour Change Communication on Reduction of Overweight and Obesity in Urban School, Bangalore. Ind J Pub Health Res Develop. 2017;8(3):280-6.

Mohan B, Kumar N, Aslam N, Rangbulla A, Kumbkarni S, Sood NK, et al. Prevalence of sustained hypertension and obesity in urban and rural school going children in Ludhiana. Ind Heart J. 2004;56(4):310-4.

Kumar P, Kumar D, Ranjan A, Singh CM, Pandey S, Agarwal N. Prevalence of Hypertension and its Risk Factors Among School Going Adolescents of Patna, India. J Clin Diagn Res. 2017;11:1-4.

Prajapati J, Oza J, Prajapati P, Bhagyalaxmi A, Rawal VS. Prevalence of behavioural risk factors of cardio-vascular diseases among school going adolescents of ahmedabad, gujarat. Health Popul Perspe Issues. 2009;32(4):198-203.

CDC-WHO. India Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2009. Atlanta, United States: Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC); 2013.

Jaisoorya TS, Beena KV, Beena M, Ellangovan K, Jose DC, Thennarasu K, et al. Prevalence and correlates of alcohol use among adolescents attending school in Kerala, India. Drug Alcohol Rev. 2016;35(5):523-9.

Qin Z, Xu F, Ye Q, Zhou H, Li C, He J, et al. Sugar-sweetened beverages and school students’ hypertension in urban areas of Nanjing, China. J Human Hypertension. 2018;32(6):392-6.