Risk prediction of cardiovascular diseases and comparison of two prediction models

Charles Nsanzabera, Daniel Nyamongo Sagwe, Marcel Ndengo


Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the world leading causes of death in non-communicable diseases. The aim of this study is to predict cardiovascular risk and compare two prediction models.

Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 440 sample size of beverage industrial participants. The 10-year prediction was processed by World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension (WHO/ISH) score chart and Framingham general risk score. WHO stepwise questionnaire and biomedical forms was used. Data was collected and analyzed by SPSS 16.0 version.

Results: The overall CVD low risk prediction (<10%) by Framingham general risk score (FGRS) and WHO/ISH score chart was 74.5%, 95.4%, respectively while the CVD elevated risk (≥10%) was 25.5%, 4.6%, respectively. Gender CVD risk (≥10%) was 16.1% of male versus 9.3% of female by FGRS while 2.7% of male versus 1.5% of female classified by WHO/ISH. CVD risk increases in both of the models with age but very much in FGRS. 8.4% of employees versus 5.2% of spouses was classified as having the risk of 10-20% by FGRS while WHO/ISH classified 2.5% of employees and 0.9% of spouses as having the risk of 10-20%. FGRS classified 11.7% of all participant as having the risk above 20% while WHO/ISH classified only 1% as having the risk above 20%. Two model’s kappa agreement level was fair or minimal interrater reliability with 0.25 with p value <0.001 and the correlated receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) curve of FGRS and WHO/ISH of 0.887 area under the curve (AUC), 0.847AUC all with a p value <0.001, respectively.

Conclusions: FGRS predicted more risk in participants than WHO/ISH and was with minimal kappa agreement.


Cardiovascular prediction models, Cardiovascular risk, Stroke, Heart failure, Peripheral vascular diseases, Myocardial infarction

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