Strategies to improve the maternal health programmes under NHM towards MDG-5: maternal mortality in Karnataka


  • R. R. Kularni Department of Management, KUPG Centre, Betageri, Gadag, Karnataka
  • D Venkatesh Department of Management, KUPG Centre, Betageri, Gadag, Karnataka



Strategies, Maternal health, Health programs, Health indicator, Maternal mortality, Millennium Development Goal and Karnataka


Background: Since from the inception of safe mother hood programs in India during 1982-1990, there is no enough maternal health initiative and financial resource for funding public health activities. So number of maternal deaths is more in India, presently which is accounted 20% of the world total maternal deaths. The global and national importance has been given during 1990 by forming millennium development goal -5 (MDG) to improve maternal health programs. During these days MMR was high and there has been recognition for Maternal Health Programs since from 1997, when RCH-I, in the year 2005. National rural health mission (NRHM) was launched with the primary and main objective was to reduce infant and maternal mortality rate as per goal and target fixed by the 12th five year plan (NHM) and MDG -5. Under NHM enough financial resources envelop has been allotted to states of India as per program implementation plan (PIP), so effective utilization of these strategic and financial resources to reduce MMR. Hence this study needs to form strategies to improve the maternal health programs to reduce maternal mortality ratio as per NHM and MDG.

Methods: We used the range of methods, like analytical methods to generate the strategies to reduce maternal deaths due to the particular cause by introducing the maternal health programmes with the strategies.

Results: Maternal mortality ratio reduced from an estimated level of 437 in 1990 to 178 in 2010–12.The all India and Karnataka target for 2015 was 109 so far not reached. It has to be reached at least by 2017.

Conclusions: Optimal using of resources with the implementation of proper strategies, it will give the exact result for achievement of planned goal. This study is also revealed that all the aspects of maternal health programmes and MMR. 


Nair PM, Chandran AS, Sabu A. The effect of Maternal Health Programmes on infant and child survival in India. J Family Welfare. 2000;46(1):61-9.

Ministry of Health & Family Welfare Govt of India. National Rural Health Mission: frame work for implementation, 2005–2012. Available at Accessed on 4 January 2017.

Gottret P, Schieber G. Health Financing Revisited. The World Bank Practitioners’ Guide; 2006: 67-20.

International Institute for Population Science. Fact sheet: National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) Mumbai; 2005–2006. Available at Accessed on 3 February 2017.

Government of India. Ministry of Statistics and Programme implementation: Millennium Development Goals India country report MOSPPI, 2005. New Delhi, India. Available at Accessed 13 Feb 2006.

Livingood WC, Coughlin S, MPH. Application of Economic Impact Analysis to a Local Public Health Agency and its Academic Health Department. Public Health Rep. 2007;(122):35-8.

WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA, World Bank. Estimates and developed: Maternal mortality report. 2007: 1-39.

WHO, UNICEF and UNFPA. Geneva, World Health Organization. Estimates and developed: Maternal mortality in 2000. 2007: 4-16.

UNICEF. Maternal and Newborn Health: The state of the world's children, 2009. New York-USA. Available at http// Accessed on 3 February 2017.

Kranti S Vora1, Dileep V, Ramani KV, Upadhyaya M, Sharma B, Iyengar S, et al. Maternal Health Situation in India: A Case Study. J Health Popul Nutr. 2009;27(2):184-201.

Health Department of Karnataka. Reports: Health Management Information System (HMIS) reports, 2010-2016. Available at http// Accessed on 3 February 2017.

Programme Evaluation Organization Planning Commission Government of India. Evaluation study of National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) in 7 States: New Delhi. 2011: 1-140.

Dolores Jime´nez Rubio. The impact of decentralization of health services on health outcomes: evidence from Canada. Health services decentralization: Appl Economics. 2011;(43):391-5.

Sample Registration Services. Maternal and Child mortality and Total Fertility Rates, Office of Register General India 7th July 2011:1-22. Available at http// Accessed on 3 February 2017.

Reddy H, Pradhan MR, Ghosh R, Khan AG. India’s progress towards the Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 on infant and maternal mortality. WHO South-East Asia J Public Health. 2012;1(3):279-89.

Burris S, Mays GP, Scutchfield FD, Ibrahim JK. Moving from Intersection to Integration: Public Health Law Research and Public Health Systems and Services Research. The Milbank Quarterly. 2012;(90)2:375–408.

Kishore J. National Health Programs of India: National Policies and Legislations Related to Health. 10th edition. New Delhi: Century Publications; 2012: 1-35.

Registrar General of India. Sample Registration Service data 2001-03 to 2010-12. Available at: Available at http// Accessed on 7 January 2017.

Indian Institute of Population Science. DLHS – III 2007-08 and IVth (2010-12) report of Karnataka state: Bombay. Available at http// Accessed on 7 January 2017.

Cameron D. Willis, Barbara L. Riley, Carol P. Herbert, Allan Best. Networks to Strengthen Health Systems for Chronic Disease Prevention: Framing Health Matters. Ame J Public Health. 2013;11(103):39.

UNFPA United Nations Population. Maternal Health Thematic Fund: United Nations Population Fund, Annual report. 2013: 1:86.

Singh S, Darroch JE, Ashford LS. Adding it up: the cost and benefits of investing in Sexual and Reproductive Health Guttmacher Institute Bill and Melinda Gates foundation. 2014: 1-56.

UNAIDS, UNFPA, UNICEF, UN Women, WHO, World Bank.The H4+ partnership: joint support to improve women’s and children’s health 2014: 1-20.

Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, GOI. National Health Policy 2015 draft, December 2014. http// Lid=3014. Accessed on 7 January 2017.

WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA, World Bank and the United Nations Population Division World Health Organization. Trends in maternal mortality Estimates. 2014: 1-68.

United Nations Population Fund: Accelerating progress towards MDG5, New York, USA: 2014: 1-16.

World Health Organization. Trend in maternal mortality: 1990 to 2013-14. http// Accessed on 7 January 2017.

Ministry of Statistics and programme implementation, Government of India. Millennium Development Goals: India country Report.2014. http// Accessed on 7 January 2017.

Registrar General of India. Maternal mortality in India Special bulletin: Office of the New Delhi: Ministry of Home Affairs, Govt. of India, 2015.

Press Information Bureau, Government of India. Ministry of Health and Family welfare Steps taken to reduce IMR and MMR 2015 12:35 IST.

Udayavani. Available at


Fo.99.Accessed on 6 July 2015.

United Nations development programme. India- millennium Development Goals- overview-Improvematernalhealth.http// /mdgoverview/overview mdg5: Ghana, 2015.




How to Cite

Kularni, R. R., & Venkatesh, D. (2017). Strategies to improve the maternal health programmes under NHM towards MDG-5: maternal mortality in Karnataka. International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health, 4(4), 1087–1093.



Original Research Articles