DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20194561

A cross-sectional study on relationship between body mass index and menstrual irregularity among rural women in Tamil Nadu

Dinesh Kumar Ganesan, Gokul Kumar Krishnan, Rajan Rushender Chitharaj, Ramkumar Boopathirajan

Abstract


Background: Menstruation is a normal physiological process and irregular menstrual pattern is a problem affecting the quality of life among women in the reproductive age group. Although many factors contribute to the irregularity in menstrual cycles this study was conducted to find out the relationship between the body mass index (BMI) and irregular menstrual pattern.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the rural health and training centre of SRM hospital between August and October 2018 by using a convenience sampling method and data was collected from 163 women in the reproductive age group and analysed to find out the relationship between the BMI and menstrual irregularity.

Results: The mean age of the study participants was 31.29 (±8.32) years and their mean age at menarche was 12.59 (±1.86) years. Majority of the study participants belongs to lower middle class (25%), Hindus (85%) by religion, married (82%), homemakers (53%) belongs to nuclear family (45%) having education up to high school level (61%). Only 44% of the participants have their BMI within normal range and 8% are obese. Irregular menstrual pattern was present in 13% of the study participants. The association between the BMI and the irregular menstrual pattern was found to be significant with a p<0.05.

Conclusions: A significant association between the BMI and the irregular menstrual pattern highlights the importance of adapting simple and effective lifestyle and behavioural modifications in the reduction of excess weight thereby leading to healthy reproductive life among women.


Keywords


Body mass index, Menstrual irregularity, Obesity

Full Text:

PDF

References


Chavez-MacGregor M, Van Gils CH, Van der Schouw YT, Monninkhof E, Van Noord PA, Peeters PH. Lifetime cumulative number of menstrual cycles and serum sex hormone levels in postmenopausal women. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2008;108(1):101-12.

Menstrual cycle: What’s normal, what’s not. Mayo Clinic. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2019 Available at: https//www. mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/womens-health/in-depth/menstrual-cycle/art-20047186. Accessed on 22 September 2019.

What are menstrual irregularities? Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Available at https://www. nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/menstruation/conditioninfo/irregularities. Accessed on 22 September 2019

Sommer M, Phillips-Howard PA, Mahon T, Zients S, Jones M, Caruso BA. Beyond menstrual hygiene: addressing vaginal bleeding throughout the life course in low and middle-income countries. BMJ Global Health. 2017;2(2):e000405.

Obesity and overweight. World Health Organization. World Health Organization; Available at: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/ detail/obesity-and-overweight. Accessed on 20 September 2019.

Samreen D, Hassan D, Khatana D, Ashraf D. Prevalence of Various Menstrual Disorders Among Females of Reproductive Age-Group Of Kashmir: A Cross-Sectional Study. Int J Adv Res. 2016;4(8):348-54.

Body mass index - BMI. World Health Organization. World Health Organization 2019. Available at: https://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/disease-prevention/nutrition/a-healthy-lifestyle/body-mass-index-bmi. Accessed 19 September 2019.

Pandey VK, Aggarwal P, Kakkar R. Modified BG Prasad’s Socio-economic Classification-2018: The need of an update in the present scenario. Indian J Comm Health. 2018;30(1):82-4.

Gunjan K, Josyula PG, Gunjan K. Prevalence of menstrual problems and its association with nutritional status among reproductive age group women in south-west Delhi: A community based cross-sectional study. Indian J Basic Applied Med Res. 2017;6(3):17-22.

Siti-Arffah K, Mohamed P, Ridzuan PM. Age at Menarche and Menstrual Pattern among Adolescences Girls in Selangor. J Nat Ayurvedic Med. 2019;3(2):000175.

Omdivar S, Amiri FN, Bakhtiari A, Begum K. A study on menstruation of Indian adolescent girls in an urban area of South India. J Family Med Prim Care. 2018:698-702

Kwak Y, Kim Y, Baek KA. Prevalence of irregular menstruation according to socioeconomic status: A population-based nationwide cross-sectional study. PLoS ONE. 2019;14(3):e0214071.

Sanctis VD, Rigon F, Bernasconi S, Bianchin L, Bona G, Bozzola M, et al. Age at Menarche and Menstrual Abnormalities in Adolescence: Does it Matter? The Evidence from a Large Survey among Italian Secondary Schoolgirls. Indian J Pediatr. 2019;86(1):34-41.

Harlow SD, Campbell OM. Epidemiology of menstrual disorders in developing countries: a systematic review. BJOG: An Int J Obstetr Gynaecol. 2004;111(1):6-16.

Deborah SG, Priya DVS, Swamy CR. Prevalence of menstrual irregularities in correlation with body fat among students of selected colleges in a district of Tamil Nadu, India. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2017;7(7):740-3.

Ko KM, Han K, Chung YJ, Yoon KH, Park YG, Lee SH. Association between Body Weight Changes and Menstrual Irregularity: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 to 2012. Endocrinol Metab (Seoul). 2017;32(2):248-56.