Association between dietary intake and bone density among female Students at Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Saudi Arabia

Seham H. Alyami, Maha J. Alqahtani, Hawra H. Alsadah, Nouf A. Altumaysi, Omar I. Abuzaid, Arafat M. Goja


Background: Recently, new studies have shown that the prevalence of osteoporosis and related fractures has been increased among young females. This study aimed at finding out the association between dietary intake and bone mineral density (BMD) among university Saudi female students at Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University.

Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out on 104 females’ students aged 18-24 years taken randomly from Rakkah campus. Dual X-ray absorptiometry was used to evaluate BMD and body composition. A complete and valid questionnaire was used to collect the required information about socio-economic status, lifestyle, body measurements, health history data, and food habits as well as food frequency questionnaire was also used. The results were statically analyzed (SPSS, 2015 V, 23) and descriptive statistics Chi-square test and independent samples t- test were used for the statistical analysis.

Results: The results demonstrated that the majority (65%) of students have normal body mass index (18.5-24.9 kg/m2), 58% normal BMD (>-1.0 SD) and 42% have low BMD. Among the low BMD students, 4% having osteoporosis (<-2.5 SD). In the present study, 36.5%, 30.8%, 37.5% and 36.5 % of student with high BMD consumed full fat dairy products, milk, yogurt, laben, cheese, respectively, compared with 21.2%, 19.2%, 245, 29.8% of students with low BMD.

Conclusions: Higher intakes in dairy products were associated with students’ bone health. Therefore, students should be more aware of their bone health and increase their knowledge regarding protective dietary foods for bone development.


Osteoporosis, Saudi Arabia, Dietary patterns, Body composition, BMD

Full Text:



National Institute of Health (NIH). Fact sheet: osteoporosis overview, 2015. Available at: URL Accessed on 8 October 2017.

Nandi A, Sinha N, Ong E, Sonmez H, Poretsky L. Is there a role for vitamin D in human reproduction?. Hormone Molecular Biol Clin Investigat. 2016;25(1):15-28.

National Osteoporosis Foundation (NOF). What is osteoporosis and what causes it?, 2017. Available at: URL Accessed on 2 October 2017.

Spence LA, Cifelli CJ, Miller GD. The role of dairy products in healthy weight and body composition in children and adolescents. Curr Nutr Food Sci. 2011;7(1):40-9.

Ito S, Ishida H, Uenishi K, Murakami K, Sasaki S. The relationship between habitual dietary phosphorus and calcium intake, and bone mineral density in young Japanese women: a cross-sectional study. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2011;20(3):411-7.

Hu FB. Dietary pattern analysis: a new direction in nutritional epidemiology. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2002;13(1):3-9.

Langsetmo L, Poliquin S, Hanley DA, Prior JC, Barr S, Anastassiades, et al. Dietary patterns in Canadian men and women ages 25 and older: relationship to demographics, body mass index, and bone mineral density. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2010;11:20.

Kontogianni MD, Melistas L, Yannakoulia M, Malagaris I, Panagiotakos DB, Yiannakouris N. Association between dietary patterns and indices of bone mass in a sample of Mediterranean women. Nutr. 2009;25(2):165-71.

Hardcastle AC, Aucott L, Fraser WD, Reid DM, Macdonald HM. Dietary patterns, bone resorption and bone mineral density in early post-menopausal Scottish women. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011;65(3):378-85.

Tucker KL, Chen H, Hannan MT, Cupples LA, Wilson PW, Felson D, et al. Bone mineral density and dietary patterns in older adults: the Framingham osteoporosis study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;76(1):245-52.

Zeidan ZA, Sultan IE, Guraya SS, Al-Zalabani AH, Khoshhal KI. Low bone mineral density among young healthy adult Saudi women: Prevalence and associated factors in the age group of 20 to 36 years. Saudi Med J. 2016;37(11):1225-33.

Zibellini J, Seimon R, Lee C, Gibson AA, Hsu M, Shapses SA, et al. Does diet-induced weight loss lead to bone loss in overweight or obese adults?. A systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials. J Bone Miner Res. 2015;30(12):2168-78.

Hunter GR, Plaisance EP, Fisher G. Weight loss and bone mineral density. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2014;21(5):358-62.

Movassagh EZ, Vatanparast, H. Current evidence on the association of dietary patterns and bone health: a scoping review. Adv Nutr. 2017;8(1):1-16.

Senderovich H, Tang H, Belmont S. The Role of exercises in osteoporotic fracture prevention and current care gaps. Where are we now?. Recent updates. Rambam Maimonides Med J. 2017;8(3):1-14.

Hiligsmann M, Neuprez A, Buckinx F, Locquet M, Reginster JY. A scoping review of the public health impact of vitamin D-fortified dairy products for fracture prevention. Arch Osteoporos. 2017;12(1):57-63.

Ivanova S, Vasileva L, Ivanova,S, Peikova L, Obreshkova D. Osteoporosis: therapeutic options. Folia Med (Plovdiv). 2015;57(3-4):181-90.

Zhao C, Zhou R, Tian Y, Tang Y, Ning H, Liu H. Effects of the nutritional education and dietary intervention on nutritional status and bone mineral density of middle-aged and senile patients with osteoporosis. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2016;45(2):230-5.

Nasabian J, Inglis JE, Kelly O, Ilich JZ. Osteosarcopenic obesity in women: impact, prevalence, and management challenges. Int J Womens Health. 2017;9:33-42.

Whittle CR, Woodside JV, Cardwell CR, McCourt HJ, Young IS, Murray LJ, at al. Dietary patterns and bone mineral status in young adults: the Northern Ireland Young Hearts Project. Br J Nutr. 2012;108(8):1494-504.

Alassaf AS, Albahussain FI, Alhmli HF, Almohaisen NA, Alotaishan SM. Prebiotic Effect on Bone Health among Female Students, University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia. Int J Scientific Res. 2016;5(10):530-2.

Lim J, Park HS. Relationship between underweight, bone mineral density and skeletal muscle index in premenopausal Korean women. Int J Clin Practice. 2016;70(6):462-8.

De Laet C, Kanis JA, Oden A, Johanson H, Johnell O, Delmas P, et al. Body mass index as a predictor of fracture risk: a meta-analysis. Osteoporos Int. 2005;16(11):1330-8.

Andreoli A, Bazzocchi A, Celi M, Lauro D, Sorge R, Tarantino U, et al. Relationship between body composition, body mass index and bone mineral density in a large population of normal, osteopenic and osteoporotic women. La Radiologia Medic. 2011;116(7):1115-23.

He H, Liu Y, Tian Q, Papasian CJ, Hu T, Deng HW. Relationship of sarcopenia and body composition with osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int. 2016;27(2):473-82.

Salamone L, Glynn N, Black D, Epstein R, Palermo L, Meilahn E, et al. Body composition and bone mineral density in premenopausal and early perimenopausal women. J Bone Mineral Res. 2009;10(11):1762-8.

Denova-Gutierrez E, Munoz-Aguirre P, Shivappa N, Hebert JR, Lizbeth Tolentino-Mayo L, et al. Dietary inflammatory index and type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults: the diabetes mellitus survey of Mexico city. Nutrients. 2018;10(4):385.

Okubo H, Sasaki S, Horiguchi H, Oguma E, Miyamoto K, Hosoi Y, et al. Dietary patterns associated with bone mineral density in premenopausal Japanese farmwomen. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;83(5):1185-92.

McGartland CP, Robson PJ, Murray LJ, Cran GW, Savage MJ, Watkins DC, et al. Fruit and vegetable consumption and bone mineral density: the Northern Ireland Young Hearts Project. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80(4):1019-23.

Park S, Joo S, Min H, Park JK, KimY, Kim SS, et al. Dietary Patterns and Osteoporosis Risk in Postmenopausal Korean Women. Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2012;3(4):199-205.

New SA. Intake of fruit and vegetables: implications for bone health. Proc Nutr Soc. 2003;62(4):889-99.

Vogel C, Parsons C, Godfrey K, Robinson S, Harvey NC, Inskip H, eta l. Greater access to fast-food outlets is associated with poorer bone health in young children. Osteoporos Int. 2016;27(3):1011-9.

Kuroda T, Onoe Y, Yoshikata R, Ohta H. Relationship between skipping breakfast and bone mineral density in young Japanese women. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2013;22(4):583-9.

Alghadir AH, Gabr SA, Al-Eisa, E. Physical activity and lifestyle effects on bone mineral density among young adults: sociodemographic and biochemical analysis. J Phys Therap Sci. 2015;27(7):2261-70.