Undernutrition and its association with socio-demographic factors among pregnant women attending tertiary health care hospital in northern Maharashtra: a cross sectional study

Mamta S. Rathod, Anant N. Borde, Sarika P. Patil, Mukesh S. Bawa, Shriram Gosavi, Vikrant Pagar, Amol Kinge, Sushant Chavan


Background: Maternal nutrition is one of the most important health and welfare problems among women in developing countries. Only limited research has been conducted on the prevalence and determinants of maternal nutritional status in Maharashtra. Particularly, data on the nutritional status of pregnant women are lacking. The aim of this was to assess prevalence and determinants of undernutrition among pregnant women attending antenatal care center.

Methods: An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted during September to December, 2018. Randomly selected 303 pregnant women were included in the study. Nutritional status was estimated using mid-upper-arm circumference. Data on potential determinants of undernutrition were gathered using a structured questionnaire. Statistical analysis was done using logistic regression. p<0.05 at 95% confidence interval was considered as statistically significant.

Results: Overall prevalence of under-nutrition among study participants was 21.8%. Using a logistic regression model, factors significantly associated with the under nutrition were rural residence (AOR=0.675; 95%CI 0.307-1.485), having less than three years duration of marriage (AOR=6.650;95%CI 2.268-19.501), living with joint family (AOR=4.128;95%CI 1.606-10.611), no utilization of family planning methods (AOR=0.319; 95%CI 0.131-0.775), less no. of ANC visit (AOR=3.253; 95%CI 1.342-7.888) and having less frequency of meal (AOR=0.319 (0.149-0.683). Remaining all factors like religion, education, occupation, family size, gravida, parity, consumption of iron and calcium tablet, getting USG done, anti-tetanus vaccination, support from family and husband were not found as significant risk factors for undernutrition.

Conclusions: Integrated approach is must to combat malnutrition among pregnant women.


Undernutrition, Pregnant women, Maternal malnutrition

Full Text:



Kumera G, Gedle D, Alebel A, Feyera F, Eshetie S. Undernutrition and its association with socio-demographic, anemia and intestinal parasitic infection among pregnant women attending antenatal care at the University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. Matern Health Neonatol Perinatol. 2018;4:18.

Hazarika J, Saikia I, Hazarika PJ. Risk Factors of Undernutrition Among Women in the Reproductive Age Group of India: An Evidence from NFHS-3. American-Eurasian J Sci Res. 2012;7(1):5-11.

Jood S, Bishnoi S, Khetarpaul N. Nutritional status of rural pregnant women of haryana state, Northern India. Nutr Health. 2002;16(2):121-31.

United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). Nourishing Wombs: Delivering an Integrated Package of Maternal Nutrition Interventions in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana (India). Nutrition Reports, Issue 10, UNICEF, New Delhi, India; 2017.

Islam A, Islam N, Bharati P, Aik S, Hossain G. Socio-economic and demographic factors influencing nutritional status among early childbearing young mothers in Bangladesh. BMC Women’s Health. 2016;16:58.

Madhavi LH, Singh HKG. Nutritional Status of Rural Pregnant Women. People’s J Sci Res. 2011;4(2):20-3.

Mariyam AF, Dibaba B. Epidemiology of Malnutrition among Pregnant Women and Associated Factors in Central Refit Valley of Ethiopia. J Nutr Disord Ther. 2018;8(1):1-8.

Ricalde AE, Velásquez-Meléndez G, Tanaka ACDA, De Siqueira AAF. Mid-upper arm circumference in pregnant women and its relation to birth weight. Rev Saude Publica. 1998;32(2):112-7.

Kumar P, Sareen N, Agrawal S, Kathuria N,Yadav S, Sethi V. Screening maternal acute malnutrition using adult mid upper arm circumference in resource-poor settings. Indian J Community Med. 2018;43:132-4.

Kedir H, Berhane Y, Worku A. Magnitude and determinants of malnutrition among pregnant women in eastern Ethiopia: Evidence from rural, community-based setting. Matern Child Nutr. 2016;12(1):51-63.

Gebre B, Biadgilign S, Taddese Z, Legesse T, Letebo M. Determinants of malnutrition among pregnant and lactating women under humanitarian setting in Ethiopia. BMC Nutr. 2018;4(1):11.

Jayatissa R, Bekele A, Piyasena CL, Mahamithawa S. Assessment of nutritional status of children under five years of age, pregnant women, and lactating women living in relief camps after the tsunami in Sri Lanka. Food Nutr Bull. 2006;27(2):144-52.

Mudhaliar MR, Ghouse ISM, Neppali J, Asavadi D, Uppara V, Chinnakotla V. Nutritional Status of Pregnant Women and Newborns in a Secondary Referral Health Care Setting of India. Indian J Pharm Pract. 2017;10(1):14-9.

Uthman O, Aremu O. Malnutrition among women in sub-Saharan Africa : rural-urban disparity. Rural Remote Health. 2008;8(2):931.

Acharya SR, Bhatta J, Timilsina DP. Factors associated with nutritional status of women of reproductive age group in rural, Nepal. Asian Pacific J Health Sci. 2017;4(4):19-24.

Rao KM, Balakrishna N, Arlappa N, Laxmaiah A, Brahmam GNV. Diet and Nutritional Status of Women in India. J Human Ecol. 2010;29(3):165-70.

Alemayehu SM. Dietary practice and associated factors among pregnant women in Gondar Town North West, Ethiopia, 2014. Int J Nutr Food Sci. 2015;4(6):707-12.