Preferred parenting style in rural community and its association with socio-demographic variables: a cross sectional study

Malenahally Puttannaiah Somashekar, Smitha Malenahalli Chandrashekarappa, Hombaiah Chandana


Background: Parenting styles are the methods used by parents when dealing with their children. Some theorists in counseling and psychotherapy have shown the importance of parenting styles in forming children personalities. Baumrind recommended three prototypes of parenting styles: authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive. Parenting styles are associated with different levels of social and cognitive competence in children and adolescents. Hence with this background the following study was undertaken to understand the preferred parenting style practiced in the rural community of southern part of India. The objective of this study is to assess the parenting style practiced in the rural community and to assess the association of socio-demographic variables with the type of parenting styles practiced in rural community.

Methods: It is a cross-sectional study, conducted in Basavanapura village of Hunasuru taluk of Mysuru district. 141 parents were selected by simple random sampling. Data was collected using parenting style questionnaire (PSQ). The questionnaire also included information on socio demographic variables. Data was analyzed using SPSS V.24. Analysis is done using descriptive statistics like percentage and inferential statistics like chi square analysis to find the association between socio demographic variables and preferred parenting styles.

Results: The most preferred parenting style reported was authoritative (63.2%) followed by authoritarian (26.2%) and permissive (10.6%) types. Years of marriage was found to be significantly associated with preferred parenting styles.

Conclusions: Nearly three fourth of the parents practiced authoritative parenting style with this type of parenting style adopted by parents having children less than twenty years.


Parenting style, Rural community, Children

Full Text:



Darling N, Steinberg, L. Parenting style as context: An integrative model. Psychological Bulletin. 1993;113(3):487-97.

Engler B. Personality theories: An introduction. 7th edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company; 2006.

Baumrind D. Effects of authoritative parental control on child behavior. Child Dev. 1966;37(4):887-907.

Cardinali G, D' Allura T. Parenting styles and self-esteem: A study of young adults with visual impairments. J Visual Impair Blindness. 2001;95:261-71.

Gfroerer KP, Kern RM, Curlette WL, White J, Jonyniene, J. Parenting style and personality: Perceptions of mothers, Parents, and adolescents. J Individual Psychol. 2011;67(1):57-73.

Baumrind D. Socialization and instrumental competence in young children. Young Children. 1970;26:104-19.

Baldwin DR, Mclntyre A, Hardaway E. Perceived parenting styles on college students' optimism. College Student J. 2007;41(3):550-7.

Belsky, J. The determinants of parenting: A process model. Child Dev. 1984;55:83-96.

Dornbusch SM, Ritter PL, Leiderman PO, Roberts DF, Fraleigh MJ. The relation of parenting style to adolescent school performance. Child Dev. 1987;58(5):1244-57.

‬‬‬Ishak Z, Low SF, Lau PL. Parenting Style as a Moderator for Students’ Academic Achievement. J Sci Educ Technol. 2012;21(4):487-93.

Smetana JG. Parenting Styles and Conceptions of Parental Authority during Adolescence. Child Dev. 1995;66(2):299-316.

Dornbusch SM, Ritter PL, Leiderman PH, Roberts DF, Fraleigh MJ. The Relation of Parenting Style to Adolescent School Performance. Child Dev. 1987;58(5):1244-57.

Valcke M, Bonte S, De Wever B, Rots I. Internet parenting styles and the impact on Internet use of primary school children. Computers Educ. 2010;55(2):454-64.

Hock RS, Mendelson T, Surkan PJ, Bass JK, Bradshaw CP, Hindin MJ. Parenting styles 1and emerging adult depressive symptoms in Cebu, the Philippines. Transcult Psychiatry. 2018;55(2):242-60.

Saunders J, Hume C, Timperio A, Salmon J. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between parenting style and adolescent girls’ physical activity. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2012;9(141);1-11.

Jaradat AK. Socio-demographic factors predicting perceived Parenting styles: implications for counselors. Arab J Psychtr. 2012;44(262):1-2.

Kashahu L, Dibra G, Osmanaga F, Bushati J. The Relationship between parental demographics, parenting styles and student academic achievement. European Scientific J. 2014;10(13):237-51.