Immunization coverage under universal immunization programme in Kozhikode district, Kerala

Sreedevi C.


Background: Immunization is an important cost effective tool for preventing the morbidities and mortalities caused by vaccine preventable diseases. The objectives of this study were to assess the universal immunization programme coverage of children of 12–23 months of age in Kozhikode district and to study the factors associated with immunization coverage.

Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in 30 randomly selected electoral wards of Kozhikode district which were selected using multi stage cluster sampling technique during April 2013 to May 2014.

Results: 469 children were studied from 30 clusters. 75.5% was fully immunized while 1.5% was unimmunized. Dropout rate for DPT 3 to Measles was the highest accounting to 20.2%. Most common reason for failure of immunization among unimmunized was that the parents didn’t feel the need (57.1%) and for partially immunized was the illness of the child (27.8%) followed by lack of awareness of the time of immunization (22.2%). Religion, early age of the mother at marriage and first delivery and high birth order were significantly associated with a higher proportion of partially immunized while higher education of the parents (>12th standard), health worker’s home visit in the first year of the child and presence of immunization card were significantly associated with a high full immunization coverage (p<0.05).

Conclusions: Immunization coverage of 75.5% is far behind the target to be achieved. 1.5% of the children didn’t get any of the vaccinations. It is very important to increases the coverage to prevent the re-emergence of vaccine preventable diseases.


Immunization coverage, Universal immunization programme, Fully immunized, Partially immunized, Unimmunized

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