Knowledge, attitude and treatment seeking behaviour among postmenopausal women in an urban slum area of Bhubaneswar, Odisha

Amrita Kumari, Meely Panda, Sai Chandan Das


Background: In every women life this unique physiological phase that is menopause take place. In developing countries like in India most of women neglected their basic health care which poses the major public health challenges. The objectives of the study were to assess the knowledge, attitude towards menopause and its associated factors among postmenopausal women of urban slum; to explore the treatment seeking behaviour and the barriers for not seeking health care among these post-menopausal women.

Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted using multistage cluster sampling and house to house visit in randomly selected slums under the UHTC area of KIMS, Bhubaneswar. A pretested and predesigned questionnaire was used among 220 postmenopausal women.

Results: The results of the study show that 60.9% of women have a heard about menopause before attaining menopause but 33.1% women attitude towards menopause is negative. Only 10% of study population were aware of HRT that it treats menopausal symptoms. We found that the awareness of cancer cervix was 19.1% but the screening was done only by 2.7% of study population.

Conclusions: There is considerably lack of knowledge and awareness about the effects and the treatment of menopausal symptoms especially in rural and slum women in India. So, such studies help in creating awareness since disseminating health education for postmenopausal women is of prime importance.


Postmenopausal women, Knowledge, Slums, Health seeking behaviours

Full Text:



Sherman S. Defining the menopausal transition. Am J Med. 2005;118(S12):3-7.

Organization WH. Research on menopause. Geneva, Switzerland; World Heal Organ; WHO Technical Report series; 1996: No. 866.

Hachul H, Polesel DN, Nozoe KT, Sanchez ZM, Prado MCO, Andersen ML, et al. The Age of Menopause and their Associated Factors : A Cross-Sectional Population-Based Study. J Women’s Health Care. 2016;5(5):1000335.

Mohammad K, Sadat Hashemi SM, Farahani FK. Age at natural menopause in Iran. Maturitas. 2004;49:321–6.

Unni J. Third consensus meeting of Indian Menopause Society (2008): A summary. J Midlife Health. 2010;1(1):43.

Ashrafi M, Kazemi S, Ph A, Malekzadeh F, Sc M. Symptoms of natural menopause among Iranian women living in Tehran, Iran. Iranian J Reprod Med. 2010;8(1):29–32.

Moustafa MF, Ali RR, El saied SF, Taha SAM. Impact of menopausal symptoms on quality of life among women’s in Qena City. IOSR J Nurs Heal Sci. 2015;4(2):49-59.

Singla M. To compare sociodemographic profile, attitude, coping strategies and psychiatric morbidity among rural and urban menopausal women. Int J Med Dent Sci. 2016;5(1):1016–26.

Apoorva MS, Thomas V. Health seeking behaviour among post-menopausal women in rural and urban field practice areas of Gandhi Medical College, Hyderabad : a cross-sectional study. Int J Community Med Public Health. 2019;6(1):428–31.

More S, Sujatha P. Knowledge, attitude and experiences of menopause in the postmenopausal women at a tertiary care center: a cross sectional study. Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol. 2018;7(11):4758–61.

Nusrat N, Nishat Z, Gulfareen H, Aftab M, Asia N. Knowledge, attitude and experience of menopause. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2008;20(1):56–9.

Puri S, Bhatia V, Mangat C. In Women Of Chandigarh, India. Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol. 2007;6(2):1–6.

Madhukumar S, Gaikwad V, Sudeepa D. A Community based study on perceptions about menopausal symptoms and quality of life of post- menopausal women in Bangalore Rural. IJHSR. 2012;2:49–56.

Akhtar N, Gupta RK, Bala K, Mengi V, Gupta C. Menopausal symptoms in rural middle aged women : a community based cross sectional study. Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol. 2018;7(9):3678–83.

Khan CGH, Hallad JS. Age at Menopause and Menopausal Transition : Perspectives of Indian Rural Women. J Midlife Health. 1994;1–21.

Tandon VR, Mahajan A, Sharma S, Sharma A. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women : A rural study. J Midlife Health. 2010;1(1):21–4.

Dutta R, Dcruze L, Anuradha R, Rao S, Rashmi MR. A Population Based Study on the Menopausal Symptoms in a Rural Area of Tamil Nadu, India. J Clin Diagnos Res. 2012;597–601.

Aarti K. Age of Menopause and Menopausal Symptoms among Urban Women in Pune, Maharashtra. J Obstet Gynaecol India. 2011;61(3):323–6.

Christian DS, Kathad MM, Bhavsar BS. A clinico-epidemiological study on health problems of post-menopausal women in rural area of Vadodara District, Gujarat. Natl J Med Res. 2012;2(4):478–80.