DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20194488

Assessment of tuberculosis spatial hotspot areas among smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients attending JSS: a tertiary health care centre from Mysore district, South India

Krishna Karthik Manthravadi, Tejashree Anantharaj, Satya Sai Badveti

Abstract


Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease of public health concern, with a varying distribution across settings depending on socio-economic status, HIV burden, availability and performance of the health system. In 2017, TB caused an estimated 1.3 million deaths (range, 1.2–1.4 million) among HIV-negative people, and there were an additional 300 000 deaths from TB (range, 266 000–335 000) among HIV-positive people. The current TB program reports are often compiled and reported at higher administrative units and there is limited information about the spatial distribution of the disease. Hence, we aimed to assess the spatial distribution and hot spot areas of the disease among the patients attending a tertiary care centre in Mysore over a period of 3 years.

Methods: This is a taluk based study, the spatial analysis and hot spot area identification was done by collecting the demographic data from the smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients attending JSS a tertiary care centre from Mysore district. Hot spot areas and areas with TB transmission are identified and estimated using GIS software tool. Distribution of TB incidence was mapped with the population density from 2016-2018.

Results: Spatial mapping of smear positive tuberculosis revealed that majority of cases were recorded from Mysore city followed by T. N. Pura and Hunsur taluk regions.

Conclusions: This study emphasized on finding hot spot areas and local clusters involved in TB transmission.


Keywords


Tuberculosis, Spatial distribution, Hot spot areas, GIS software

Full Text:

PDF

References


Cromley EK, McLafferty SL. GIS and public health New York. Int J Geographical Inform Sci. 2012;27(5):1040-1.

Davenhall B. Geomedicine: geography and personal health. Esri, Redlands. 2012. Available at: http://gisandscience.com/bibliographies/geomed-icine.html. Accessed on 10 July 2019.

World Health Organization (WHO). Global tuberculosis report 2013. Geneva: WHO; 23 Oct 2013. Available at: http://apps. who.int/iris/ bitstream/10665/91355/1/9789241564656_eng. Pdf. Accessed on 10 July 2019.

De Fede LA, Stewart JE, Harris MJ, Mayfield-Smith K. Tuberculosis in socio-economically deprived neighbourhood’s: missed opportunities for prevention. The international journal of tuberculosis and lung disease. J Int Union Against Tuberculosis Lung Disease. 2008;12(12):1425–30.

Corbett EL, Bandason T, Cheung YB, Makamure B, Dauya E, Munyati SS, et al. Prevalent infectious tuberculosis in Harare, Zimbabwe: burden, risk factors and implications for control. J Int Union Against Tuberculosis Lung Disease. 2009;13(10):1231–7.

Oxlade O, Murray M. Tuberculosis and poverty: why are the poor at greater risk in India? PloS one. 2012;7(11):e47533.

Couceiro L, Santana P, Nunes C. Pulmonary tuberculosis and risk factors in Portugal: a spatial analysis. J Int Union Against Tuberculosis Lung Disease. 2011;15(11):1445–54.

Santos GM, Figueiredo L, Vendramini SH, Gazetta CE, Cruz Oliveira SA, Scatena Villa TC. Poverty: socioeconomic characterization at tuberculosis. Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem. 2007;15:762–7.

Johnson CP, Johnson J. GIS: A Tool for Monitoring and Management of Epidemics. In Proceedings of Map India, 2001. New Delhi, India: 4th Annual International Conference and Exhibition; 2001.

Goodchild M, Haining R, Wise S. Integrating GIS and spatial data analysis: problems and possibilities. Int J Geographical Inform Systems. 1992;6(5):407-23.

Madhu B, Srinath KM, Rajendran V, Devi MP, Ashok NC, Balasubramanian S. Spatio-temporal pattern of breast cancer- case study of Southern Karnataka, India. J Clin Diag Res. 2016;10(4):LC20-4.

Munch Z, Van Lill SW, Booysen CN, Zietsman HL, Enarson DA, Beyers N. Tuberculosis transmission patterns in a high-incidence area: a spatial analysis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2003;7(3):271–7.

Harling G, Ehrlich R, Myer L. The social epidemiology of tuberculosis in South Africa: a multilevel analysis. Soc Sci Med. 2008;66(2):492–505.

Chan-yeung M, Yeh AG, Tam CM, Kam KM, Leung CC, Yew WW, et al. Socio-demographic and geographic indicators and distribution of tuberculosis in Hong Kong: a spatial analysis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2005;9(12):1320–6.

Shetty N, Shemko M, Vaz M, D’Souza G. An epidemiological evaluation of risk factors for tuberculosis in South India: a matched case control study. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2006;10(1):80–6.

Gustafson P, Gomes VF, Vieira CS, Rabna P, Seng R, Johansson P, et al. Tuberculosis in Bissau: incidence and risk factors in an urban community in sub-Saharan Africa. Int J Epidemiol. 2004;33(1):163–72.

Jia ZW, Jia XW, Liu YX, Dye C, Chen F, Chen CS, et al. Spatial analysis of tuberculosis cases in migrants and permanent residents, Beijing, 2000–2006. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(9):1413–9.

Randremanana RV, Sabatier P, Rakotomanana F, Randriamanantena A, Richard V. Spatial clustering of pulmonary tuberculosis and impact of the care factors in Antananarivo City. Trop Med Int Health. 2009;14(4):429–37.