A community based study of scenario of glaucoma in Aligarh, India

Syed Zulfequar Ahmad, Anees Ahmad, Najam Khalique, Yasir Alvi


Background: Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide and is second only to cataracts as the most common cause of blindness overall. In the developing world, the prevalence of glaucoma is expected to rise even more dramatically as the population of adults has doubled within a span of few decades. So this study was done with an objective of finding out the prevalence of glaucoma among adults aged 40 years and above in the field practice area of the Department of Community Medicine, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out for the duration of one year. A total of 680 persons were interviewed and examined by a trained ophthalmologist for detailed eye examination including visual acuity, refraction and slit-lamp bio-microscopy, intraocular pressure (IOP) by Keeler Pulsair non-contact tonometer confirm by applanation tonometry, gonioscopy, and dilated fundus examination after ruling out the risk of angle closure. Anderson criteria were used to diagnose glaucomatous visual field defect.

Results: In our study population, the IOP of the majority of population lied in 11-15 mm Hg with a mean IOP of 13.42±4.09 mmHg. In regard to optic disc examination, a cup to disc ratio of >0.6 was found in 35 eyes. According to the predefined criteria, a total of 31 subjects were diagnosed as glaucoma in either one or both eyes. The overall prevalence of glaucoma was found to be 4.6% (31/680), with the prevalence of primary open angle glaucoma, primary angle closure glaucoma, normotensive glaucoma and secondary glaucoma as 1.3%, 1.2%, 1.2% and 0.9% respectively.

Conclusions: The prevalence of glaucoma is quite high in an elder population of Aligarh. This should warrant more intensive activities, focusing not only on early diagnosis and management of glaucoma but also include strengthening preventive ophthalmic care.


Glaucoma, Community based study, Elderly, IOP

Full Text:



Sheng B, Law CB, Yeung KM. Characteristics and diagnostic profile of patients seeking dementia care in a memory clinic in Hong Kong. Int Psychogeriatr. 2009;21(2):392.

Tham YC, Li X, Wong TY, Quigley HA, Aung T, Cheng CY. Global prevalence of glaucoma and projections of glaucoma burden through 2040: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ophthalmol. 2014;121(11):2081-90.

Sah R, Badhu B, Pokharel P, Thakur S, Das H, Panda A. Prevalence of glaucoma in Sunsari district of eastern Nepal. KUMJ. 2007;5(3):343-8.

Jacob A, Thomas R, Koshi SP, Braganza A, Muliyil J. Prevalence of primary glaucoma in an urban south Indian population. Indian J Ophthalmol. 1998;46(2):81-6.

George R, Ve RS, Vijaya L. Glaucoma in India: estimated burden of disease. J Glaucoma. 2010;19(6):391-7.

Abdullah A, Askari SN, Ahmad S, Alvi Y. Assessment and Comparison of Microbiological Efficacy of Moxifloxacin plus Vancomycin Combined Therapy with Fortified Vancomycin in Bacterial Conjunctivitis. Int Arch BioMed Clin Res. 2018;4(3):65-8.

Alvi Y, Khalique N, Ahmad A, Khan HS, Faizi N. Prevalence of depression among HIV-positive patients treated with antiretrovirals at different stage of infection. HIV AIDS Review. 2018;17(4):243-8.

Dandona L, Dandona R, Srinivas M, Mandal P, John RK, McCarty CA, et al. Open-angle glaucoma in an urban population in southern India: the Andhra Pradesh eye disease study. Ophthalmol. 2000;107(9):1702-9.

Dandona L, Dandona R, Mandal P, Srinivas M, John RK, McCarty CA, et al. Angle-closure glaucoma in an urban population in southern india: The Andhra Pradesh eye disease study. Ophthalmol. 2000;107(9):1710-6.

Vijaya L, George R, Arvind H, Baskaran M, Ve Ramesh S, Raju P, et al. Prevalence of Primary Angle-Closure Disease in an Urban South Indian Population and Comparison with a Rural Population: The Chennai Glaucoma Study. Ophthalmol. 2008;115(4):e655-60.

Vasudevan J, Mishra AK, Singh Z. An update on B. G. Prasad’s socioeconomic scale: May 2016. Int J Res Med Sci. 2016;44(9):4183-6.

IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.; 2011 Available at: Accessed on 21 May 2017.

Epi tools - epidemiological calculator: Calculate confidence limits for a sample proportion. Available at: CIProportion. Accessed on 9 November 2017.

Awasthi P, Sarbhai KP, Banerjee SC, Maheshwari BB. Prevalence study of glaucoma in rural areas. Indian J Ophthalmol. 1975;23(1):1-5.

Wani AE, Keng MQ. Glaucoma scenario in Kashmir valley: a hospital-based study. IOSR J Dent Med Sci. 2019;18:8-14.

Palimkar A, Khandekar R, Venkataraman V. Prevalence and distribution of glaucoma in central India (Glaucoma Survey 2001). Indian J Ophthalmol. 2008;56(1):57-62.

Ramakrishnan R, Nirmalan PK, Krishnadas R, Thulasiraj R, Tielsch JM, Katz J, et al. Glaucoma in a rural population of southern India: The Aravind comprehensive eye survey. Ophthalmol. 2003;110(8):1484-90.

Lee PP, Feldman ZW, Ostermann J, Brown DS, Sloan FA. Longitudinal Prevalence of Major Eye Diseases. Arch Ophthalmol. 2003;121(9):1303.

Narayanaswamy A, Baskaran M, Zheng Y, Lavanya R, Wu R, Wong WL, et al. The Prevalence and Types of Glaucoma in an Urban Indian Population: The Singapore Indian Eye Study. Investigat Opthalmol Visual Sci. 2013;54(7):4621.

Paul C, Sengupta S, Choudhury S, Banerjee S, Sleath B. Prevalence of glaucoma in Eastern India: The Hooghly River Glaucoma Study. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2016;64(8):578.

Krishnaiah S, Kovai V, Srinivas M, Shamanna B, Rao G, Thomas R. Awareness of glaucoma in the rural population of Southern India. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2005;53(3):205.

Vijaya L, George R, Paul PG, Baskaran M, Arvind H, Raju P, et al. Prevalence of Open-Angle Glaucoma in a Rural South Indian Population. Investigat Opthalmol Visual Sci. 2005;46(12):4461.

Alvi Y, Khalique N, Ahmad A, Khan HS, Faizi N. World Health Organization dimensions of adherence to antiretroviral therapy: a study at Antiretroviral Therapy Centre, Aligarh. Indian J Community Med. 2019;44(2):118-24.

Congdon N, Wang F, Tielsch JM. Issues in the epidemiology and population-based screening of primary angle-closure glaucoma. Survey Ophthalmol. 1992;36(6):411-23.

Raychaudhuri A, Lahiri SK, Bandyopadhyay M, Foster PJ, Reeves BC, Johnson GJ. A population based survey of the prevalence and types of glaucoma in rural West Bengal: the West Bengal Glaucoma Study. Br J Ophthalmol. 2005;89(12):1559-64.

Al Obeidan SA, Dewedar A, Osman EA, Mousa A. The profile of glaucoma in a Tertiary Ophthalmic University Center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Saudi J Ophthalmol. 2011;25(4):373-9.

Jonas JB, Nangia V, Matin A, Sinha A, Kulkarni M, Bhojwani K. Intraocular pressure and associated factors: The central india eye and medical study. J Glaucoma. 2011;20(7):405-9.