The effect of mindfulness therapy on the pregnant women’s anxiety level in facing childbirth

Apri N. Wulandari, Brigitta A. D. Susanti


Background: The health improvement for pregnant women in antenatal phase is not only focused on maintaining physical health, but also the psychological health. One of the factors of maternal psychological health is anxiety. Anxiety is common in pregnant women caused by maternal concerns about complications that accompany the mother and her fetus. The increasing anxiety in pregnant women can have an impact on pregnancy complications. Therefore an intervention is needed to overcome anxiety in pregnant women. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of mindfulness therapy on the anxiety level of pregnant women in labor.

Methods: This study uses a quasi-experimental design with a pre-test and post-test with control group. Implemented in the Public Health Center working area like Sleman in August-September 2018. There were 26 participants selected using purposive sampling, with 13 assigned in experiment and control groups. The questionnaire used is Pregnancy Related Anxiety Questionnaire-Revised 2. Independent sample t-test used for data analysis.

Results: There was a significant difference in the mean of anxiety score after the intervention in the experimental group compared to the control group with a value of p=0.017 (p<0.05). The mean of anxiety score after intervention in the control group was 32.00, while the average of anxiety score after intervention in the experimental group was 24.54.

Conclusions: Giving mindfulness therapy to pregnant women is able to reduce maternal anxiety levels significantly in facing labor. 


Anxiety, Mindfulness, Pregnant woman

Full Text:



Republic of Indonesia Ministry of Health (Ministry of Health). Indonesia Health Profile 2015. Jakarta: Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia; 2016.

Republic of Indonesia Ministry of Health (Ministry of Health). 2013 Basic Health Research. Jakarta: Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia; 2013.

Resmaniasih, K. Effect of Diaphragm Respiratory Technique on Anxiety in Trimester III Pregnant Women. Semarang: Diponegoro University; 2014.

Setyaningsih MM. The Influence of Giving a "Harmony" Package to High Risk Pregnant Mothers Against Anxiety in Mothers Facing Labor in Malang City. Depok: University of Indonesia; 2012.

Jeyanthi I, Kavitha P. Anxiety And Stress Among The Primigravida And The Multigravida- A Comparative Study. Departement of Social Work, Cauvery College for Women, Trichy. 2008;1(2):126–31.

Panuntun RA. Description of Physical and Psychological Discomfort in Trimester III Pregnant Women in Bantul District Health Center, Yogyakarta Special Region. J Gadjah Mada University. 2016.

Rahmawati DN. Perception Relationship about Childbirth with Anxiety Level in Primigravida Trimester III Mothers at Mlati Sleman Sakina Idaman Children and Mother Hospital. J Gadjah Mada University; 2016.

Pareira VM, Nardi AE, Silva AC. Sexual dysfunction, depression, and anxiety in young women according to relationship status: an online survey. Trends Psychiatry and Psychother. 2013;35(1):55-61.

Seyegan Public Health Center. Health Profile of UPT Seyegan Public Health Center. 2017.

Yeh GY, Wang C, Wayne PM, Phillips RS. The Effect of Tai Chi Exercise on Blood Presssure: a systematic review. Prev Cardiol. 2008;11(2):82-9.

Stahl B, Goldstein E. A Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Workbook. Canada: New Harbinger Publications, Inc; 2010.

Widiastuti PH. Relationship between Anxiety in Pregnancy with Sexual Function in Trimester III Pregnant Women at Mlati 1 Public Health Center, Sleman, Yogyakarta. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University, 2017.

Huizink AC, Delforterie MJ, Scheinin NM, Tolvanen M, Karlsson L, Karlsson H. Adaption of pregnancy anxiety questionnaire-revised for all pregnant women regardless of parity: PRAQ-R2. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2016;19(1):125-32.

Hidayat S, Sumarni S. Anxiety for Pregnant Women in Facing Labor. Health Journal of Wiraraja Medika. 2013;67-72.

Snyder CR, Lopez SJ. Positive Pychology: The Scientific and Practical Exploration of Human Strength. London: Sage Publications; 2007.

Cedli LG. Husband's Sexual Function During a Couple's Pregnancy Period. Depok: University of Indonesia, 2012.

Chang S, Ho HN, Chen K, Shyu MK, Huang L, Lin W. Depressive Symptoms as a Predictor of Sexual Function during Pregnancy. J Sex Med. 2012;9(10):2582-9.

Westerneng M, De-Cock P, Spelten ER. Factorial Invariance of Pregnancy-Specific Anxiety Dimentions Across Nulliparous and Parous Pregnant Women. J Health Psychol. 2015;20:164-72.

Khorsandi M, Vakilan K, Salehi B, Goudarzi M, Abdi M. The Effect of Stress Inoculation Training on Perceived Stress in Pregnant Women. J Health Psychol. 2016;21(12):2977-82.

Laili R. Relationship between Age, Education Level, and Family Support with Anxiety Levels Approaching Childbirth in Primigravida Trimester III at the Midwifery Polyclinic in Public Hospital of Dr. M. Djamil Padang. Andalas University Journal. 2010.

Kabat-Zinn J. Full Catasthrope Living: Using the Wisdom of Your Body and Mind to Face Stress, Pain, and Illness. New York: Bantam Dell; 1990.

Davis LW, Strasbunger AM, Brown LF. Mindfulness an intervention for anxiety in Schizophrenia. J Psychosocial Nursing. 2007;45:23-9.

Arch JJ, Craske MG. Mechanisms of mindfulness: Emotion regulation following a focused breathing induction. Behav Res Therapy. 2006;44:1849-58.

Narimani M, Musavi SKS. Effectiveness of mindfulness based cognitive therapy on anxiety, stress, and depression of pregnant youths: A randomized clinical trial. European J Forensic Sci. 2015;2(1):1-4.

Dhillon A, Sparkes E, Duarte RV. Mindfulness-Based Interventions During Pregnancy: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Mindfulness. 2017;8:1421-37.

Mohamed S, Elsharkawy NB, Awad MH. Mindfulness Based Intervention Program on Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms among Pregnant Women. American J Nursing Sci. 2017;6(3):232-9.

Kabat-Zinn, J. Mindfulness-based Intervention in Context: Past, Present, and Future. Clinical Psychol Science Practice. 2003;10(2):144-56.