Association between behavioural, metabolic risk factors of non-communicable diseases and socio-demographic factors among Bihari population in Bangladesh

Sabrina Ahmed, M. S. A. Mansur Ahmed, Palash C. Banik, Rajib Mondal, Pradip K. Sen Gupta


Background: The Bihari community is an underprivileged group of people, immigrants from Pakistan during 1971 independence war, now living in Bangladesh. This community is considered as vulnerable for not having adequate health care facilities and access to health services. The current study is aimed to determine the association between behavioural, metabolic risk factors of non-communicable diseases (NCD) and socio-demographic factors among Bihari community in Bangladesh.

Methods: It was a community based cross-sectional study. Total 183 Bihari living in Geneva camp in Dhaka city have been included in the study by purposive sampling. An adopted WHO STEPS questionnaire was used for data collection. A semi structured questionnaire and standardized procedures were used to measure behavioural risk factors and physical characteristics. Data were analysed by using SPSS version 21.

Results: Among the respondents the mean age was 44.4±13.2 years with 60.1% men. One-third (32.2%) were current tobacco user, almost all (99.5%) didn’t take sufficient fruit and vegetables, 52.5% were added salt user, 76.0% didn’t perform adequate physical activity but alcohol consumers were negligible (3.3%). More than half (54.6%) were overweight or obese, 33.9% had hypertension, 23.0% had hyperglycaemia and 50.3% had hyperlipidaemia. Sex, age, education, occupation and family income were significantly associated with these NCD risk factors.

Conclusions: To our best knowledge this is the first ever study that describes the NCD risk factors and its sociodemographic determinants among the Bihari population in Bangladesh.


Non-communicable diseases, Risk factors, Bihari population, Bangladesh

Full Text:



WHO NEWS. 2019. Available at: noncommunicable-diseases. Accessed on 22 January 2019.

WHO. Global Status Report on non-communicable diseases 2014.

Pavli A, Maltezou H. Health problems of newly arrived migrants and refugees in Europe. J Travel Med. 2017;24:1-8.

Enas EA, Garg A, Davidson MA, Nair VM, Huet BA, Yusuf S. Coronary. Heart disease and its risk factors in first-generation immigrant Asian Indians to the United States of America. Indian Heart J. 1996;48:343-53.

Begam NS, Mini GK. Impact of migration on non-communicable disease risk factors: comparison of Gulf migrants and their non-migrant contemporaries in the district of origin in Kerala, India. Austin J Public Health Epidemiol. 2016;3:1038.

Patel JV, Vyas A, Cruickshank JK, Prabhakaran D, Hughes E, Reddy KS, et al. Impact of migration on coronary heart disease risk factors: comparison of Gujaratis in Britain and their contemporaries in villages of origin in India. Atherosclerosis. 2006;185:297-306.

Bhatnagar D, Anand IS, Durrington PN, Patel DJ, Wander GS, Mackness MI, et al. Coronary risk factors in people from the Indian subcontinent living in west London and their siblings in India. Lancet. 1995;345:405-9.

Keil JE, Britt RP, Weinrich MC, Hollis Y, Keil BW. Hypertension in Punjabi females: comparison between migrants to London and natives in India. Hum Biol. 1980;52:423-33.

Attanapola CT. Migration and Health: A literature review of the health of immigrant populations in Norway. Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU). 2013.

World Directory of Minorities : South Asia. (Biharis of Bangladesh). Available at: http://www.faqs. org/minorities/South-Asia/Biharis-of-Bangladesh. html. Accessed on 22 January 2019.

Asaduzzaman M, Chowdhury S, Shahed JH, Kafi MAH, Uzzaman MN, Flowra MT, et al. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus among urban Bihari communities in Dhaka, Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study in a minor ethnic group. Cureus. 2018;10(1):e2116.

Hypertension in adults: diagnosis and management. Available at: 127. Accessed on 22 January 2019.

World Health Organization. Non-communicable diseases and their risk factors. WHO STEPS Surveillance Manual; 2017.

WHO. Global Adult Tobacco Survey: Fact sheet. Bangladesh, 2017. Available at: http:// Accessed on 22 January 2019.

Zaman MM, Bhuiyan MR, Karim MN, Moniruzzaman, Rahman MM, Akanda AW, et al. Clustering of non-communicable diseases risk factors in Bangladeshi adults: An analysis of STEPS survey 2013. BMC Public Health. 2015;15:659.

Khalequzzaman M, Chiang C, Choudhury SR, Yatsuya H, Al-Mamun MA, Al-Shoaibi AAA, et al. Prevalence of non-communicable disease risk factors among poor shantytown residents in Dhaka, Bangladesh: a community-based cross-sectional survey. BMJ Open. 2017;7:e014710.

Kumar P, Singh CM, Agarwal N, Pandey S, Ranjan A, Singh GK. Prevalence of risk factors for noncommunicable disease in a rural area of Patna, Bihar- a WHO STEP wise approach. Indian J Prev Soc Med. 2013;44:46-53.

Mondal R, Sarker RC, Banik PC, Acharya NP, Sultana S, Madumita M, et al. Knowledge attitude and behavior towards dietary salt intake among Bangladeshi population. SMU Med J. 2017;4:170-8.

Zaman MM, Choudhury SR, Ahmed J, Khandaker RK, Rouf MA, Malik A. Salt intake in an adult population of Bangladesh. Glob Heart. 2017;12:265-6.

Sarker R, Mondal R, Roy DC, Acharya NP. Knowledge attitude and behaviours towards dietary salt in a selected slum population in Bangladesh. Int J Perception in Public Health. 2018;2(4):178-83.