Prevalence and determinants of smoking among rural young males of Kancheepuram district, Tamil Nadu: a cross sectional study

Arunkumar M., Gopalakrishnan S., Umadevi R.


Background: Tobacco is the leading global cause of preventable death which kills millions of people and causes huge economic damage every year. Smoking form of tobacco is a major modifiable risk factor for number of chronic non-communicable diseases. In spite of various statutory warnings, smoking still remains a major Public health problem especially in young males. In order to reduce the magnitude and for effective control, the risk factors and distribution should be well known. This study was planned with the objective of assessing the prevalence and determinants of smoking among rural young males of Kancheepuram district, Tamil Nadu, India.

Methods: This community based cross sectional study was carried out between March and May 2018 among rural young males aged between 18 to 29 years. Sample size of 431 was calculated by using 4PQ/L2 and the respondents were selected from sampled households using systematic random sampling. Data were collected using a pre-tested, structured questionnaire, which were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 and presented using descriptive and analytical statistics.

Results: Among 422 participants interviewed, the prevalence of smoking was 23%. Factors found to be protective against smoking were employment status and sedentary type of jobs. Factors found to be significantly associated with smoking were individuals with smoking friends and family members, habit of alcoholism, employment and low education status.

Conclusions: Since smoking is a preventable cause of morbidity and mortality, efforts should be made to control its use by intensive health education, implementing counsellingfacilities and rigorous enforcement of anti-tobacco legislation. 


Tobacco, Youth, Risk factors

Full Text:



National Tobacco Control Programme. Operational Guidelines. Available at: in/WebContent/Tobako-29102015/Operation-Guideline.pdf. Accessed on 26 November 2018.

NCDs, Tobacco control and The FCTC. Available at: .pdf. Accessed on 26 November 2018.

Tobacco: a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases. Available at: /default/files/rfiles/NCDA_Tobacco_and_Health.pdf. Accessed on 26 November 2018.

Global Adult Tobacco Survey-GATS-2-India, 2016-17. Available at: mediacentre/events /2017/gats2_india.pdf. Accessed on 26 November 2018.

National Family Health Survey-4. 2015 -16. State Fact Sheet-Tamil Nadu. Available at: http://www. Accessed on 26 November 2018.

Patel DN, Keny D, Mohijitsinh J, Hemanshi C, Janak D, Vikas C. A cross sectional study of smoking among youth population. Int J Biomed Adv Res. 2016;7(12):574-7.

Konduru RK, Sathiyasekaran BWC. A study on tobacco use among rural adults. J Evol Med Dent Sci. 2013;2(15):2493-501.

Annadurai K, Mani G, Dhanasekaran R. Tobacco usage among males in rural Tamil Nadu, India: a cross-sectional Study. Int J Med Students. 2014;2(1):18-21.

Gupta S, Mishra P, Nagarajappa S, Kumar S, Lalani A. Prevalence of Tobacco and associated risk factors among university law students in Indore City. Indian J Dent Res. 2019;30:10-4.

Aryal UR, Deuba K, Subedi A, Shrestha R, Bhatta L. Prevalence and determinants of cigarette smoking among the college students of Kathmandu Valley. Asian J Med Sci. 2010;1:53-8.

Khader YS, Alsadi AA. Smoking habits among university students in Jordan: prevalence and associated factors. East Mediterr Health J. 2008;14(4):897-904.

Chockalingam K, Vedhachalam C, Rangasamy S, Sekar G, Adinarayanan S, Swaminathan S, et al. Prevalence of tobacco use in urban, semi urban and rural areas in and around Chennai City, India. PLoS ONE. 2013;8(10):e76005.

Ngahane BHM, Ekobo HA, Kuaban C. Prevalence and determinants of cigarette smoking among college students: a cross sectional study in Douala, Cameroon. Arch Public Health. 2015;73:47.

Muzammil K, Singh S, Singh JV, Davey S, Raghav S, Khalil S. A cross-sectional study of tobacco addiction among college students of Muzaffarnagar City. Indian J Comm Health. 2015;27(1):125-29.

Islam K, Datta AK, Seth S, Roy A, Das R. A study on the prevalence and correlates of nicotine dependence among adolescents of Burdwan Town, West Bengal. Indian J Psychiatr. 2019;61:89-93.

Makwana NR, Shah VR, Yadav S. A study on prevalence of smoking and tobacco chewing among adolescents in rural areas of Jamnagar District, Gujarat State. J Med Sci Res. 2007;1(1):47-50.