A study to assess the prevalence of iodine deficiency disorders in Betul district, Madhya Pradesh, India

Sudarshan Kushwah, Akhil R. Nair, Jeevan Singh Meena, Shipra Verma, Harshima Sawlani, Ankit Chandak


Background: Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) constitute the single largest cause of preventable neurological damage worldwide. Majority of consequences of IDD are invisible and irreversible but at the same time these are preventable. The study was conducted to assess the prevalence of goiter in school children aged 6-12 years, to estimate the urinary iodine excretion and to assess the level of iodine concentration in salt samples obtained from households of selected school children.

Methods: Population proportionate to size sampling. Sample size was 90 primary school-going children of age 6-12 years in each selected village, total 2700 from 30 villages/wards in Betul district, Madhya Pradesh, India.

Results: The prevalence of goiter among the 6-12 years children was found to be 32.06%. Females had higher prevalence compared to males. Of the 540 salt samples, 370 (68.4%) had iodine concentration ≥15 ppm at household level.

Conclusions: IDD is a mild public health problem in Betul district.


Goiter, Iodine deficiency disorders, Iodized salt, Prevalence, School children

Full Text:



World Health Organization. Micronutrient deficiencies. Available at: nutrition/topics/idd/en/. Accessed on 17 June 2019.

Pandav CS, Yadav K, Srivastava R, Pandav R, Karmarkar MG. Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) control in India. Indian J Med Res. 2013;138(3):418.

World Health Organization. Iodization of salt for the prevention and control of iodine deficiency disorders. Available at: titles/salt_iodization/en/. Accessed on 17 June 2019.

National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Programme (NIDDCP). Available at: http://dghs Accessed on 17 June 2019.

National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Program (NIDDCP). Available at: http://www.salt Accessed on 17 June 2019.

National Family Health Survey-4, 2015-16. State fact sheet: Madhya Pradesh. Available at: http:// Accessed on 17 June 2019.

Chudasama RK, Verma PB, Mahajan RG. Iodine nutritional status and goiter prevalence in 6-12 years primary school children of Saurashtra region, India. World J Pediatr. 2010;6:233-7

Sarkar P, Harish BR, Raghunath H, Mahendra BJ, Vinay M, Nimisha V. Prevalence of Iodine Deficiency Disorders among School Children Aged 6-12 Years in Mandya District, Karnataka. Int J Scientific Study. 2014;2(8):155-8.

Makwan NR, Shah VR, Unadkat S, Shah HD, Yadav S. Goiter prevalence and current status among school age children years after the universal salt iodization in Jamnagar district, India. Thyroid Res Pract. 2012;9:40-4.

Chandwani HR, Shroff BD. Prevalence of Goiter and Urinary Iodine Status in 6- 12 Year Old Rural Primary School Children of Bharuch District, Gujarat, India. Int J Prev Med. 2012;3(1):54-9.

Kamath R, Bhat V, Rao R, Das A, Ganesh KS, Kamath A. Prevalence of Goiter in rural area of Belgaum district, Karnataka. Indian J Community Med. 2009;34:48-51.