Dietary risk factors of non-communicable diseases among industrial common workers: a cross-sectional study

Dakshadhwari Upadhyay, Rashmi Ahmed, Manjit Boruah


Background: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of death and morbidity throughout the world. Unhealthy diet is a risk factor for NCDs. There is a lack of studies on the prevalence of dietary risk factors among the industrial population in India particularly in North East India.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among industrial workers of a major industry in Assam. The sample size was 330 considering a prevalence of 50% and 95% confidence interval, and a design effect of 1.5. Data was collected using methods described in WHO STEPS instrument v3.1.

Results: A total of 318 subjects consented to participate in the study. Consumption of less than 5 servings of fruit and/or vegetables on average per day was observed in majority 98.4% of the study participants. In a typical week, fruits and vegetables were consumed on 2.99 and 6.89 days respectively. Mean number of servings of fruit consumed on average per day was 0.5 and for vegetables were 2.33.46 (14.5%) of the study participants added extra salt always or often to their food before eating or while eating. 132 (41.5%) of the study participants always or often ate processed foods high in salt.

Conclusions: Inadequate consumption of fruits and vegetables was observed in 98.4% of industrial workers included in the study. Increasing awareness among this population about adequate consumption of fruits and vegetables to prevent NCDs is necessary.


Dietary risk factors, Non-communicable disease, Industrial workers, Salt consumption

Full Text:



World Health Organisation. Global Health Observatory (GHO) data. Available at Accessed 12 January 2017.

World Health Organisation. Non-communicable diseases: the slow-motion disaster. Available at Accessed 12 August 2018.

Non communicable diseases. Fact sheet: WHO, 2015. Available at centre/factsheets/fs355/en/. Accessed 27 December 2016.

World Health Organization. Global status report on Non-communicable diseases 2010.

Wang X, Ouyang Y, Liu J, Zhu M, Zhao G, Bao W, et al. Fruit and vegetable consumption and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. BMJ. 2014;349:g4490.

WHO STEPS Surveillance Manual. World Health Organisation, 2017. Available at http://www.who. int/ncds/surveillance/steps/STEPS_Manual.pdf. Accessed 30 January 2017.

Kar SS, Subitha L, Kalaiselvi S, Archana R. Development and implementation of healthy workplace model in a selected industry of Puducherry, South India. Indian J Occupational Environmental Med. 2015;19(1):25-9.

Lwanga SK, Lemeshow S. Sample size determination in health studies' a practical manual. World Health Oragnisation., 1991. Available at (p1-p22).pdf?sequence=1. Accessed 21 December 2016.

Government of Assam, Industries & Commerce. Available at Accessed 9 December 2016.

Kishore J, Kohli C, Sharma PK, Sharma E. Non-communicable disease risk profile of factory workers in Delhi. Indian J Occup Environ Med. 2012;16(3):137-41.

Mehan MB, Srivastava N, Pandya H. Profile of non communicable disease risk factors in an industrial setting. J Postgrad Med. 2006;52(3):167-71.

Misra PJ, Mini GK, Thankappan KR. Risk factor profile for non-communicable diseases among Mishing tribes in Assam, India: Results from a WHO STEPs survey. The Indian J Med Res. 2014;140(3):370-78.

Thakur JS, Jeet G, Pal A, Singh S, Singh A, Deepti SS, et al. Profile of Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Diseases in Punjab, Northern India: Results of a State-Wide STEPS Survey. PLoS ONE. 2016;11(7):e0157705.

Garg A, Anand T, Sharma U, Kishore J, Chakraborty M, Ray PC, et al. Prevalence of risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases using who steps approach in an adult population in Delhi. J Family Med Prim Care. 2014;3:112-8.

Thankappan KR, Shah B, Mathur P, Sarma PS, Srinivas G, Mini GK, et al. Risk factor profile for chronic non-communicable diseases: results of a community-based study in Kerala, India. Indian J Med Res. 2010;131:52-63.

Pelzom D, Isaakidis P, Oo MM, Gurung MS, Yangchen P. Alarming prevalence and clustering of modifiable noncommunicable disease risk factors among adults in Bhutan: a nationwide cross-sectional community survey. BMC Public Health. 2017;17:975.

Zaman MM, Bhuiyan MR, Karim MN, Zaman M, Rahman MM, Akanda AW et al. Clustering of non-communicable diseases risk factors in Bangladeshi adults: An analysis of STEPS survey 2013. BMC Public Health. 2015;15:659.

Aryal KK, Mehata S, Neupane S, Vaidya A, Dhimal M, Dhakal P, et al. The Burden and Determinants of Non Communicable Diseases Risk Factors in Nepal: Findings from a Nationwide STEPS Survey. PLoS ONE. 2015;10(8):e0134834.