DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20192859

Prevalence and pattern of risk factors for non-communicable diseases in urban population of Jaipur, Rajasthan

Chabbil Kumar, Priyanka Dobhal, Amita Kashyap

Abstract


Background: Majority of the risk factors for NCDs are measurable and modifiable thus continuous surveillance of the levels and pattern of these risk factors is of fundamental importance. Taking cognizance of Jaipur city rapidly adopting to metropolitan culture; this study may mark an important milestone in surveillance activities and setting preventive priorities for NCDs in the state of Rajasthan. Aim of the study is to measure prevalence and associated variables of major risk factors for NCDs in the age group of 25-64 years.

Methods: It is a cross sectional, descriptive study, conducted on 1454 person aged 25 to 64 years, residing in Jaipur city, from 1st June 2012 to 31st December 2013, using two steps of ‘standard WHO STEPS structured instrument’. Categorical data were expressed in form of percentage. Chi-square test was used to analyse difference in proportions. Continuous data were summarized in form of mean and SD. The differences in means were analysed by student’s t test.

Results: At least one risk factor was present in all persons moreover 35% had multiple risk factors. Multiple risk factors were present even in 20% of relatively young adults (25-34 years). Tobacco and alcohol consumption was seen in 28% and 29% respectively. Standard of living index was associated with obesity, hypertension and low physical activity but not with alcohol use, smoking and daily consumption of fruit & vegetable. Male consumed more alcohol, indulged in less physical activity and smoked more than twelve times than females.

Conclusions: Educating younger population for healthy lifestyle adoption and focused educational intervention with strict enforcement of existing laws will be helpful in controlling this epidemic of NCD.


Keywords


Risk factor, Non-communicable disease, Urban, Jaipur, Smoking, Alcohol, Hypertension, Overweight

Full Text:

PDF

References


Li Y, Wang L, Jiang Y, Zhang M, Wang L. Risk factors for non-communicable chronic diseases in women in China: surveillance efforts, Bull World Health Organ. 2013;91(9):650–60.

World health organization - Global strategy on Diet, Physical activity. www.who.int/ strategy_english_web.pd.

Strong K, Mathers C, Leeder S, Beaglehole R. Preventing chronic diseases: How many lives can we save? Lancet. 2005;366:1578-82.

Reddy KS, Shah B, Varghese C, Ramadoss A. Responding to the threat of chronic diseases in India. Lancet. 2005;366:1744-49.

Upadhyay RP. An overview of the burden of non-communicable diseases in India. Iranian J Publ Health. 2012;41(3):1-8.

Epping-Jordan JE, Galea G, Tukuitonga C, Beaglehole R. Preventing chronic diseases: taking stepwise action. Lancet. 2005;366:1667-71.

The WHO STEPS wise approach, surveillance of risk factors for non-communicable disease, Framework (draft) 2002; WHO, Geneva.

Integrated Disease Surveillance Project (IDSP). Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factors Survey, 2007-2008.

Gupta R, Gupta KD. Coronary heart disease in low socioeconomic status subjects in India: “An Evolving Epidemic". Indian Heart J. 2009;61:358-67.

Indian institute of population sciences and macro international, 2007.

Rani M, Bonu S, Jha P, Nguyen SN, Jamjoum L. Tobacco use in India: Prevalence and predictors of smoking and chewing in a national cross sectional household survey. Tob Control. 2003;12:e4.

Nath A, Garg S, Deb S, Ray A, Kaur R. Profile of behavioural risk factors of non-communicable diseases in an urban setting in New Delhi. Indian J Public Health. 2009;53(1):28-30.

Gupta R, Prakash H, Majumdar S, Sharma S, Gupta VP. Prevalence of coronary heart disease and coronary risk factors in an urban population of Rajasthan. Indian Heart J. 1995;47(4):331-8.

Gupta R, Sharma KK, Gupta A, Agrawal A, Mohan I, Gupta VP, et al. Persistent high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in the urban middle class in India: Jaipur Heart Watch-5. J Assoc Physicians India. 2012;60:11-6.

Gupta R, Gupta VP, Prakash H, Sarna M, Sharma AK. Hindu-Muslim differences in the prevalence of coronary heart disease and risk factors. J Indian Med Assoc. 2002;100(4):227-30.

Subramaniam SV, Nandy S, Kelly M, Gordon D, Smith GD. Patterns and distribution of tobacco consumption in India: cross sectional multilevel evidence from the 1998-99 national family health survey. BMJ. 2004;328:800-6.

Narayanan KMV, Chadha SL, Hanson RL, Tandon R, Sekhawat S, Fernandes RJ, et al. Prevelence and patteren of smoking in delhi: cross sectional study. BMJ. 1996;312:1576-9.

Girish N, Kavita R, Gururaj G, Benegal V. Alcohol use and implications for public health: patterns of use in four communities. Indian J Community Med. 2010;35(2):238–44.

Mohan D, Chopra A, Ray R, Sethi H. Alcohol consumption in India: a cross sectional study. In: Room R, Demers A, Bourgault C (eds). Surveys of Drinking Patterns and Problems in Seven Developing Countries. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2001: 103-114.

Gupta R. Lifestyle risk factors and coronary heart disease prevalence in Indian men. J Assoc Physicians India. 1996;44(10):689-93.

Singh J, Mohan V, Padda AS. A comparative study of prevalence of regular alcohol users among the male individuals in an urban and rural were of district Amritsar, Punjab. Indian J Community Med. 2000;25:73–8.

Gupta PC, Saxena S, Pednekar MS, Maulik PK. Alcohol consumption among middle aged and elderly men: a community based study from western India. Alcohol Alcohol. 2003;38(4):327-31.

Chadha SL, Gopinath N, Sekhawat S. Urban rural difference in the prevalence of coronary heart disease and risk factors in Delhi. WHO bulletin. 1997;75:31-8.

Gupta R, Sharma S, Gupta VP, Gupta KD. Smoking and alcohol intake in a rural Indian population and correlation with hypertension and coronary heart disease prevalence. J Assoc physicians India. 1995;43(4):253-8

Anand K, Shah B, Gupta V, Khaparde K, Pau E, Menon GR, et al. Risk factors for non-communicable disease in urban Haryana: a study using the STEPS approach. Indian Heart J. 2008;60(1):9-18.

Sugathan TN, Soman CR, Sankaranarayanan K. Behavioural risk factors for non-communicable diseases among adults in Kerala, India. Indian J Med Res. 2008;127:555-63.

Deepa M, Farooq S, Deepa R, Manjula D, Mohan V. Prevalence and significance of generalized and central body obesity in an urban Asian Indian population in Chennai, India (CURES: 47). Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009;63(2):259–67.

Gupta R, Gupta VP, Sarna M, Bhatnagar S, Thanvi J, Sharma V, et al. Prevalence of coronary heart disease and risk factors in an urban Indian population: Jaipur Heart Watch-2. Indian Heart J. 2002;54:59-66.

Gupta A, Gupta R, Sarna M, Rastogi S, Gupta VP, Kothari K. Prevalence of diabetes, impaired fasting glucose and insulin resistance syndrome in an urban Indian population. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2003;61(1):69–76.

Corsi DJ, Subramanian SV. Association between socioeconomic status and self-reported diabetes in India: a cross-sectional multilevel analysis. BMJ Open. 2012;2(4):e000895.

Ahmed SM, Hadi A, Razzaque A, Ashraf A, Juvekar S, Ng N, et al. Clustering of chronic non- communicable disease risk factors among selected Asian populations: levels and determinants. Glob Health Action. 2009;2:10.