DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20193457

A study on awareness of cervical cancer and human papilloma virus vaccine among the women’s degree college students in Nandyal

Ganesam Krishna Kumari, Mohammed Mushtaq Pasha, Afasar Fatima

Abstract


Background: In India cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancer mortality in women after carcinoma breast. Human papilloma virus (HPV) is the principal causative agent for cervical cancer. FDA approved 2 vaccines for primary prevention, and is available in India, but is not part of National Immunization Programme. Due to societal, religious and ethical issues associated with the vaccination of adolescent girls in India together with lack of awareness about HPV and HPV vaccines, no successful HPV immunization program has been employed in India. To study the awareness of Degree college students on cervical cancer and HPV vaccine.

Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted at SPY REDDY Women’s Degree College, Nandyal from 16th December 2018 to 15th February 2019. The participants were 327 Degree students of first to final year. Students who were not present during the study were excluded from the study. The data was collected using a semi structured questionnaire. The data was analysed by using spss version 24 and the results expressed as proportions.

Results: The mean age of participants was 19.53±1.26 years. 89% of the students were unmarried and 11% were married. 46.4% of the students were aware of cervical cancer. Poor genital hygiene (11.2%), smoking and alcohol (5.8%), multiple sex partners (4.3%), sex at an early age (3.4%), long term OCP usage (2.5%) were considered as risk factors for cervical cancer by the students. 18.4% of the students had knowledge about HPV virus. Among the students who knew about cervical cancer, 22.3% of the students responded as vaginal bleeding after menopause is a symptom of cervical cancer, 8.1% responded as bleeding during or after sex, 3.4% as pain during sex, 1.6% as severe low backache. Only 1% knows about Pap smear. Only 12% know about the vaccine. Only 4% correctly knew the vaccine eligibility. None of the students were HPV vaccinated.

Conclusions: The level of awareness of students about cervical cancer and HPV vaccine is far below for effective vaccination and prevention of carcinoma cervix. More effective awareness programmes are needed to screen early for cervical cancer and vaccinate & prevent the high mortality from carcinoma cervix.


Keywords


Cervical cancer, HPV virus, Pap smear, HPV vaccine

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ferlay J, Shin HR, Bray F, Forman D, Mathers C, Parkin DM. Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN 2008. Int J Cancer 2010;127(12):2893-917.

Vallikad E. Cervical Cancer. The Indian Perspective. Int J of Gynecol Obstet. 2006;95(1):215-33.

Kurkure AP, Yeole BB. Social inequalities in cancer with special reference to South Asian countries. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2006;7(1):36-40.

Bosch FX, De Sanjosé SS. Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer-burden and assessment of causality. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 2003;31:3-13.

Das BC, Gopalkrishna V, Hedau SKS. Cancer of the Uterine Cervix and Human Papilloma viruses. Curr Sci. 2000;78(1):52-63.

Miller AB, Chamberlain J, Day NE, Hakama M, Prorok PC. Report on a workshop of the UICC project on evaluation of screening for cancer. Int J Cancer. 1990;46(5):761-9.

Singhal T. Indian Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Immunisation (IAPCOI)-Consensus Recommendations on Immunization 2008. Indian Pediatr. 2008;45(8):635-48.

Siddharthar J, Rajkumar B, Deivasigamani K. Knowledge and awareness of cervical cancer and its prevention in women attending a Tertiary Care Hospital. J Clin Diagn Res. 2014;8(6):OC01-3.

Baloch Z. Yasmeen N, Li Y, Zhang W, Lu H, Wu X et al. Knowledge and awareness of cervical cancer, Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) and HPV Vaccine Among HPV-Infected Chinese Women. Med Sci Monit. 2017;23:4269-77.

Johnson DC, Bhatta MP, Gurung S, Aryal S, Lhaki P, Shrestha S. Knowledge and awareness of human papillomavirus (HPV), cervical cancer and HPV vaccine among women in two distinct Nepali communities. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014;15(19):8287-93.

Rashid S, Labani S, Das BC. Knowledge, awareness and attitude on HPV, HPV vaccine and cervical cancer among the college students in India. PLoS ONE. 2016;11(11): e0166713.