A study of nutritional anemia among urban primary school children of Katihar
Keywords:Anemia, Socio economic status, Dietary habit, Nutritional status
Background: Children health is an important concern for all societies since it contributes to overall development. The present position with regards to health and nutritional status of children is not satisfactory despite of mid-day meal programme running in government run schools. This study is conducted to assess the proportion of children, aged between 6 year to 11 years having anemia and socio demographic factors associated with iron deficiency anemia among selected children.
Methods: For the purpose of study a list of all government primary schools of Katihar had been prepared and equal numbers of students were examined from randomly selected schools. By taking the prevalence of anemia 50% among school children for confidence level 95% with 10% relative precision with sample size comes out to be 384. The sample size was doubled to cover both boys and girls in the study. A total of 800 students (426 boys and 374 girls) in the age group of 6-11 years were interviewed and examined.
Results: Out of 800 children total 343 (42.88%) were anemic. The prevalence of anemia was 37.96% among boys and 48.07% among girls. The prevalence of mild and moderate anemia among boys was 32.05% and 67.95% and 70.8% and 29.2% among girls respectively. The prevalence of anemia was high among lower and upper lower socio-economic status (100% and 45.32%). The proportion of anemic children showed a significant association with education of mother and nutritional status. Proportion of anemia decreased significantly with increase in education status of mother.
Conclusions: The prevalence of anemia was found high among primary school children. Major factors which influence the prevalence of anemia were socioeconomic status, mother education and nutritional status of children.
National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3). 2005-2006: Key Findings. Mumbai, India: International Institute for Population Sciences; 2007. Available at: www.measuredhs.com/pubs/pdf/SR128/SR128. pdf. Accessed on 11 April 2010.
DeMaeyer E, Adiels-Tegman M. The prevalence of anaemia in the world. World Health Statistics Quarterly. 1985;38:302-16.
Rao NP, Singh D, Swaminathan MC. Nutritional Status of Preschool children of rural communities near Hyderabad city. Ind J Med Res. 1969;57:2132-48.
Gupta N, Agarwal KN. Hematological Investigations and plasma proteins in pre-school children. Ind Jour Pediatr. 1972;39:48-51.
Uberoi IS, DeSweemer C, Taylor CE. A study of anemia among rural Punjabi children. Ind Jour Med Res. 1972;60:793-99.
Preschool children studies on anemia: Indian Council of Medical Research. Technical Report Series, No. 26:22. 1977.
Singla PN, Gupta HP, Ahuja C, Agarwal KN. Deficiency Anemia in preschool Children- Estimation of prevalence based on response to haematinic supplementation, Jour Trop Pediatr. 1982;28:77-80.
Agarwal DK, Bharadwaj B, Singla PN, Tripathi AM, Agarwal KN. Etiology of maternal and early childhood deficiency anemia. Ind Jour Pediatr. 1986;53:389-96.
Gomber S, Kumar S, Rusia U, Gupta P, Agarwal KN, Sharma S. Prevalence and etiology of nutritional anemia in early childhood in an urban slum. Ind J. Med Res. 1998;107:269-73.
Pasricha SR, Black J, Muthayya S. Determinants of Anemia Among Young Children in Rural India. Pediatrics. 2010;126:140-9.
Lozoff B, Jemenez E, Wolf AW. Long term developmental outcome of infants with iron deficiency. New Eng J Med. 1991;325:687-94.
Politt E. Iron deficiency and cognitive function. Annu Rev Nutr. 1993;13:521-37.
Halterman JS, Kaczorowski JM, Aligne CA, Auinger P, Szilagyi PG. Iron deficiency and cognitive achievement among school-aged children and adolescents in the United States. Pediatr. 2001;107:1381-6.
Walter T, Kovalskys J, Stekel A. Effect of mild iron deficiency on infant mental development scores. J Pediatr. 1983;102:519-22.
Lozoff B, Smith J, Liberzon T, Argul-Barroso R, Jiminez E. Longitudinal analysis of cognitive and motor effects of iron deficiency in infancy. Pediatr Res. 2004;55:23.
World Health Organization. Iron Deficiency Anaemia: Assessment, Prevention, and Control-A Guide for Programme Managers. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. 2001. www.who.int/nutrition/publications/micronutrients/ anaemia_iron_deficiency/WHO_NHD_01.3/en/ index.html. Accessed on 12 April 2010.
Sudhagandhi B, Sundaresan S, William WE, Prema A. Prevalence of anemia in the school children of Kattankulathur, Tamil Nadu, India. Int J Nutr Pharmacol Neurol Dis. 2011;1(2):184.
Assefa S, Mossie A, Hamza L. Prevalence and severity of anemia among school children in Jimma Town, Southwest Ethiopia. BMC Hematol. 2014;14(1):1-9.
Sahu T, Sahani NC, Patnaik L. Childhood anemia—a study in tribal area of Mohana block in Orissa,” Indian J Community Med. 2007;32(1):43–5.
Bekele A, Tilahun M, Mekuria A. Prevalence of Anemia and Its Associated Factors among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care in Health Institutions of Arba Minch Town, Gamo Gofa Zone, Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study. Anemia. 2016:1073192.
Jain N, Jain VM. Prevalence of anemia in school children. Med Pract Rev. 2012;3(1):1-4.
Ullah I, Sarwar G, Aziz S, Khan MH. Intestinal worm infestation in primary school children in rural Peshawar. Gomal J Med Sci. 2009;7(2).
Djokic D, Drakulovic MB, Radojicic Z, Crncevic Radovic L, Rakic L, et al. Risk factors associated with anemia among Serbian school-age children 7-14 years old: results of the first national health survey. Hippocrat. 2010;14(4):252-60.