Assessment of quality of life among elderly population of rural areas of Etawah district: a cross sectional study

Priyanka Bansal, Anand M. Dixit, Pankaj K. Jain, Sandip K. Gupta, Prashant K. Bajpai, Jyoti Mehra


Background: All the aspects of health status, lifestyle, life satisfaction, mental health and well-being together reflects the multidimensional nature of quality of life (QOL) in an individual. The objective of the study was to assess the quality of life among rural elderly population of Etawah district and their association with various socio demographic factors.

Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 316 elderly subjects in rural areas of Etawah district. QOL was assessed by using WHOQOL-OLD tool. Socio-demographic factors were assessed by using a self-structured questionnaire. Data was analysed by using Microsoft Excel 2010 and statistical software SPSS-22. Transformed facet sore were calculated using WHOQOL- OLD manual and Independent sample t- test were applied.

Results: Majority (86%) were in the (≤75) years of age.  Among the study participants, 52.8% were females, 67.5% were illiterate, 72.5% belong to nuclear family. The mean scores of QOL domains was maximum in death and dying (83.20), followed by sensory ability (62.99).The lowest mean score was seen Intimacy domain (22.80). Gender, type of family, financial status and staying with partner were found to be the determinants of better QOL (p>0.05).

Conclusions: The mean quality of life score was below average in intimacy domain. It was maximum in death and dying domain.



Full Text:



UN. World population prospects: the 2017 revision. Methodology of the United Nations population estimates and projections. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs PD; 2014.

WHO. Study protocol for the world health organization project to develop a quality of life assessment instrument (WHOQOL). Qual Life Res. 1993;2:153-9.

Population Composition, Chapter 2, Census of India. Available at: vitalstatistics/SRS Report/ 9Chap 2011.pdf. Accessed on 17 February 2015.

Wellbeing Measures in Primary Health care/ The DEPCARE project: Report on a WHO meeting; Regional office for Europe, the World Health Organization; 1998.

The WHOQOL Group. The development of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment Instrument (the WHOQOL). In: Orley J, Kuyken W, editors. Quality of Life Assessment: International Perspectives. Springer-Verlag: Heidleberg; 1994: 43.

International Institute for Population Survey (IIPS). National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4), India 2015-2016: Uttar Pradesh. Mumbai : IIPS

Kumar SG, Majumdar A, Pavithra G. Quality of Life (QOL) and Its Associated Factors Using WHOQOL-BREF Among Elderly in Urban Puducherry, India. J Clin Diagnostic Res. 2014;8(1):54-7.

WHO. WHOQOL-OLD. Copenhagen; 2006: 1-61.

Charan S, Mathur JS, Mishra VN, Singh JV, Singh RB, Garg BS, Kumar A. Social Problems of Aged in a Rural Population. Indian J Com Med. 1995;20(1-4):24-7.

Akbar F, Kumar M, Das N, Chatterjee S, Mukhopadhyay S, Chakraborty M, et al. Quality of Life (QOL) Among Geriatric Population in Siliguri Sub-division of District Darjeeling, West Bengal NatJ Res Com Med. 2012;1(4):178-241.

Kritika, Kakkar R, Aggarwal P, Semwal J. Quality of Life (QOL) among the Elderly in Rural Dehradun. IJCH. 2017;29(01):43-4.

Sultan ESER, Gül SAATL, Erhan ESER, Hakan BAYDUR, Caner FİDANER. The Reliability and Validity of the Turkish Version of the World Health Organizati on Quality of Life Instrument-Older Adults Module (WHOQOL-Old). Turkish J Psychiatry. 2010.

Figueira, Helena A, Figueira JA, Bezerra JC, Dantas, Estélio HM. Old Aged Quality of Life: Brazil – India a Cross-cultural Perspective. Indian J Gerontol. 2009;23(1):6678.

Praveen V, M AR. Quality of life among elderly in a rural area. Int J Community Med Public Health. 2016;3(3):754-7.

Sowmiya KR, Nagarani. A Study on Quality of Life of Elderly Population in Mettupalayam, A Rural Area of Tamilnadu. NatJ Res Com Med. 2012;1(3):123-77.

Kumar SG, Majumdar A, G P. Quality of Life (QOL) and Its Associated Factors Using WHOQOL-BREF Among Elderly in Urban Puducherry, India. J Clin Diagn Res. 2014;8(1):547.

Raj D, Swain PK, Pedgaonkar SP. A study on quality of life satisfaction & physical health of elderly people in Varanasi: An urban area of Uttar Pradesh, India. Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2014;3(5):616-20.

Qadri SS, Ahluwalia S, Ganai AM, Bali spS, Wani FA, Bashir. H. An epidemiological study on quality of life among rural elderly population of nothern India. Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013;2(3):514-22.

Barua A, Mangesh R, Kumar HN, Saajan M. Assessment of the domains of quality of life in the geriatric population. Indian J Psychiatry. 2005;47(3):157-9.

Hameed S, Brahmbhatt KR, Dipak C Patil DC, S. PK, Jayaram S. Quality of life among the geriatric population in a rural area of Dakshina Kannada, Karnataka, India. Global J Med Public Health. 2014;3(3):1-5

Gupta A, Mohan U, Tiwari SC, Singh SK, Manar MK, Singh VK. Home away from Home: Quality of Life, Assessment of Facilities and Reason for Settlement in Old Age Homes of Lucknow, India. Ind J Comm Health. 2014;26(2):165-9.