A study on open air defecation practices among the population above 6 years in rural field practice area of Santhiram Medical College, Nandyal, Kurnool dist, Andhra Pradesh


  • Venkateswarlu M. Department of Community Medicine, Santhiram Medical College, Nandyal, Kurnool dist, Andhra Pradesh, India




Open air defecation, Sanitary latrine, Contamination of water, Hand washing


Background: Open air defecation can be defined as the excretion of human excreta in open places such as park, roadside, vegetable patch, agricultural fields and railway track other than toilets. Open air defecation may leads to various health problems such as soil pollution, water pollution, contamination of foods and propagation of flies. Nearly 74% of India’s population live in rural areas and the majority of them “go to the fields” for defecation and thereby pollute the environment with human excreta. The aims and objectives of the study were to find the association between defecation practices and socio-demographic variables; to assess the prevalence of hook-worm infestation and anemia among them.

Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted. Sample size was 550 and simple random sampling. Chi-square test was applied.

Results: The prevalence of open air defecation was 441 (80.2%). 270 (61.2%), 171 (38.8%) were males and females; 23.3% were habit of hand washing with soap after toilet. 87 (19.7%), 63 (14.3%), 43 (9.7%) were found to be having hook worm, round worm, and pin worm infestation in the stool examination. 32 (35.5%), 21 (23.3%), 37 (41.1%) were having severe anemia, moderate anemia, and mild anemia.

Conclusions: 335 (60.9%), 106 (19.3%) people were going for open air defecation and inspite of having toilet at home. 226 (51.2%) belong to lower socio economic class. The association between socio demographic profile and open air defecation was significant (χ2=0.02, p<0.05).


Garg S, Nath A. Current status of national rural health mission. Indian J Community Med. 2007;32(3):171-2.

Harvey P. Human excreta and sanitation: An inter-agency initiative by Oxfam GB; 2004.

Harvey PA. Excreta disposal in emergencies, a field manual; inter-agency publication. WEDC, Loughborough University; 2007.

Venkataramanan V, Crocker J, Karon A, Bartram J. Community-Led Total Sanitation: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review of Evidence and Its Quality. Environ Health Perspect. 2018;126(2):026001.

Kosoe EA, Osumanu IK. Entertaining risks to health: the state of human faecal matter managemnt in Wa, Ghana. Ghana J Develop Studies. 2018;15:1.

International institute of health and hygiene; Pathogens in human excreta; ENVIS Centre on Hygiene, Sanitation, Sewage Treatment Systems and Technology; 2016: 06.

Archana. Article on Swachh Bharath Abhiyan; India Celebrating; 2017: 18.

Roy N, Swamy PGN. A study to assess the effectiveness of video assisted teaching programme on knowledge regarding hazards of open air defecation among women in selected villages of waghodia. Int J Applied Res. 2016;2(5):782-4.

Sinha T, Painkra SK, Agrawal A. A study to assess the knowledge and practices regarding toilet usage under swachh bharat mission in tribal villages of Bastar, Chhattisgarh (India). J Evid Based Med Healthc. 2018;5:2589-92.

Nilkheni R. Argyam report. Vijaya Karnataka. Kannada newspaper; 2010: 9.

Okechukwu OI, Okechukwu AA, Noye-Nortey H, Owusu-Agyei. Toilet practices among the inhabitants of Kintampo District of Northern Ghana. J Med Med Sci. 2012;3:522-30.

Howard G, Jahnel J, Frimmel FH, McChesney D, Reed B, Schijveni J, et al. Human Excreta and Sanitation Potential Hazards and Information Needs. (Document on internet) World Health Organization; 2010.

Spencer MC. Sanitation Practices and Preferences in Peri-Urban Accra, Ghana; Emory University's Electronic Thesis and Dissertation repository; 2012.

Bhardwaj A. A Community based cross sectional study on use of sanitary latrines in a rural setup in Maharashtra. Health Line. 2013;4:89-93.

Banerjee AB, Pasha MAM, Fatima A, Isaac E. A study of open air defecation practice in rural nandivargam village. Intl J Bioassays. 2013;2(7):1051-4.

Jha PK. Health & Social benefits for improving community Hygiene & sanitation, an Indian experience. Int J Environ Health Res. 2010;13:133-40.

Singh A, Aror AK. Knowledge, attitude, Practices of villagers regarding sanitary latrine in North India. Indian J Prev Soc Med. 2003;34:3.

Banda K. Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Elsevier Ltd; 2007: 122-129.

Pradhan B. Rural Communities' Perception on Water Quality and Water Borne Disease: The Case of Bugamati Village Development Committee in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. J Nepal Health Res Council. 2004;2:23-7.

Indira R, Viveka Vardhani V. prevalence of hookworm infection in a slum area, vangayagudem, west Godavari district, (Andhra Pradesh). Int Quarterly J Life Sci. 2010;5:399-402.

Humphries D, Mosites E, Otchere J, Twum WA, Woo L, Jones-Sanpei H, et al. Epidemiology of hookworm infection in Kintampo North Municipality, Ghana: patterns of malaria co infection, anemia, and albendazole treatment failure. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011;84:792-800.

Kamil ZH, Rashid KH, Al-Awad AS. The Prevalence of Anemia and Hookworm Ancylostoma Duodenale Infection in Mishamish Village, Al-Hashimya District, Babylon Province, Iraq. Med J Babylon. 2015;11:4.




How to Cite

M., V. (2019). A study on open air defecation practices among the population above 6 years in rural field practice area of Santhiram Medical College, Nandyal, Kurnool dist, Andhra Pradesh. International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health, 6(5), 1901–1907. https://doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20191468



Original Research Articles