DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20191835

Socio-demographic co-relates of depression among housewives in rural area of district Ludhiana

Urvashi ., Sangeeta Girdhar, Anurag Chaudhary, Sanjay Gupta, Shamim Monga

Abstract


Background: Depression is the most common psychiatric disorder in general practice. It is much more common among women than men, with female/male ratio roughly 2:1. In today’s hectic life, stress is increasing in housewives. Very few data is available on depression among housewives in India. So the present study is aimed to assess the prevalence of depression and study its epidemiological co-relates among housewives aged 18-59 years in rural area of district Ludhiana. Objectives were to assess depression among housewives aged 18-59 years in a rural area and determine the association of depression with socio-demographic co-relates.

Methods: This study is a community based cross-sectional study carried out in the field practice area of Department of Community Medicine, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab. 300 subjects were selected by systematic random sampling. Assessment of depression among the housewives was done by using Patient Health Questionnare-9 (PHQ-9).

Results: In the present study, 43% of the subjects were found to have depression. Mean age of subjects with depression was found to be 42.4 (±10.3) years. There was an increasing trend of depression among housewives with increasing age (p=0.000). Inverse relationship was found between level of education and depression (p=0.000). Lower socio-economic status was found to be associated with higher rates of depression (p=0.039).

Conclusions: Depression was seen to be on higher side among housewives in rural area of Ludhiana. Housewives should be educated about warning signs and symptoms of depression and motivated to avail the primary health care services.


Keywords


Depression, Housewives, Age, Education, Socio-economic status

Full Text:

PDF

References


World Health Organization. Strengthening Mental Health Promotion. Geneva, World Health Organization (Fact sheet no. 220), 2001.

Marcus M, Yasamy T, Ommeren M, Chisholm D, Saxena S. Depression-A Global Public Health Concern. WHO Department of Mental Health and Substance abuse. Available from: http://www.who.int/mental_health/management/depression/who_paper_depression_wfmh_2012.pdf. Accessed

Poongothai S, Pradeepa R, Ganesan A, Mohan V. Prevalence of depression in a large urban South Indian population - The Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (Cures – 70). PLoS One. 2009;4(9):e7185.

Kessler RC. Epidemiology of women and depression. J Affective Dis. 2003;74:5-13.

Lemeshow S, Hosmer DW, Klar J, Lwanga SK. Adequacy of Sample Size in Health Studies. England : John Wiley & Sons; 1990: 1, 42.

Mathur M. Depression and Life Style in Indian Ageing Women. J Indian Acad Appl Psychol. 2009;35(1):73-7.

Patel V, Kirkwood B, Pednekar S, Weiss H, Mabey D. Risk factors for common mental disorders in women : Population based longitudinal study. British J Psych. 2006:189:547-55.

Deswal B, Pawar A. An epidemiological study of mental disorders at Pune, Maharashtra. Indian J Comm Med. 2012;37:116-21.

Obadeji A, Oluwole LO, Dada MU, Ajiboye AS, Kumolalo BJ, Solomon OA. Assessment of Depression in a Primary Care Setting in Nigeria using the PHQ‑9. J Family Med Prim Care. 2015;4(1):30-4.

Mumford DB, Saeed K, Ahmad I, Latif S, Mubbashar MH. Stress and psychiatric disorder in rural Punjab. A community survey. Br J Psychiatry. 1997;170:473-8.

Husain N, Creed F, Tomenson B. Depression and social stress in Pakistan. Psychol Med. 2000;30(2):395-402.

Ali TS, Mogren I, Krantz G. Intimate Partner Violence and Mental Health Effects: A Population-Based Study among Married Women in Karachi, Pakistan. Int J Behav Med. 2013;20:131–9.

Nisar N, Billoo N, Gadit AA. Prevalence of Depression and the associated Risks Factors among Adult Women in a Fishing Community. J Pak Med Assoc. 2004;54:519-25.

Luni FK, Ansari B, Jawad A, Dawson A, Baig SM. Prevalence of Depression and Anxiety In A Village In Sindh. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2009;21(2):68-72.