Estimation of prevalence of risk factors for coronary artery disease in a rural population in Howrah, West Bengal

Ujjwal Pattnayak, Debdutta Banerjee, Kishore P. Madhwani, Jitendra Kumar Singh


Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major cause of death globally in both developed and developing countries. Coronary artery disease which was once thought to be a disease of the urban population is now involving the rural community in an increased number. So a study of major coronary risk factors in rural communities will help to adopt various strategies particularly behavior change and communication relevant for these communities to prevent these risk factors and lower CAD related mortality and morbidity. Objective was to estimate rates of the various risk factors for CAD and identify the high-risk groups in the rural community.

Methods: A community based cross sectional study was carried out in a rural area in the Howrah district of West Bengal. Four hundred and eighteen (418) persons (212 males and 206 females) were subjected to study using structured, pretested and predesigned schedule. Coronary artery disease risk factors were assessed. Statistical analysis was done with the help of statistical software, the SPSS 20.0 for windows.

Results: The study observed that prevalence of tobacco use among the study population was the most significant risk factor (42.3%). The prevalence of other coronary risk factors ranged from 10-20%. Tobacco use, alcohol consumption and sedentary life style were significantly more amongst males. Whereas truncal obesity and systolic hypertension more among females.

Conclusions: Various comprehensive strategies particularly behavior change and communication targeting these high risk population need to be emphasized to lower CAD related morbidity burden in the community.



Coronary artery disease risk factors, Rural community, Prevalence rates, Behavior change communication strategies

Full Text:



Luepker RV, Evans A, McKeigne P, Reddy SK. Cardiovascular Survey Methods. 3RD ed. World Health Organization, Geneva; 2004.

WHO. Burden of NCDs and their risk factors in India. (Excerpted from Global Status Report of NCDs –2014). Available at: http://www.searo. Accessed on 2 January 2019.

PIB. NPCDCS: Managing Non-Communicable Diseases. Press Information Bureau, GOI. Available at: =76249. Accessed on 2 January 2019.

Prabhakaran D, Jeemon P, Roy A. Cardiovascular Diseases in India: Current Epidemiology and Future Directions. circulation. 2016;133(16):1605-20.

Ke C, Gupta R, Xavier D, Prabhakaran D, Mathur P, Kalkonde YV, et al. Divergent trends in ischaemic heart disease and stroke mortality in India from 2000 to 2015: a nationally representative mortality study. Lancet. Lancet Glob Health. 2018;6(8):914-23.

World Health Organization: Physical status: The use and interpretation of anthropometry: WHO Tech Rep Series; 1995: 424-438.

Park K. Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine. 18th edition, M/s Banarasidas Bhanot Publishers: Jabalpur; 2005.

Walia M, Agarwal AK, Shah P, Yadav R, Singh CP, Yadav P. Prevalence of coronary risk factors in non-insulin dependent (type–2) diabetes. J Assoc Physicians India. 1999;47:1051-5.

Kulkarni AP, Baride JP. Prasad’s method of social classification. Text Book of Community Medicine, 2nd edition, Vora Medical Publishers; 2002: 29.

World Health Organization: Hypertension Control: WHO Tech Rep Series; 1996: 862.

Singh RB, Ghosh S, Niaz MA, Rastogi V. Validation of physical activity and socio-economic status questionnaire in relation to food intakes for the five city study and proposed classification for Indians. J Assoc Physicians India. 1997;45(8):603-6.

Cannon CP, Battler A, Brindis RG, Cox JL, Ellis SG, Every NR, et al. Key elements and data definitions for measuring the clinical management and outcomes of patients with acute coronary syndromes: a report of the American College of Cardiology Task Force on Clinical Data Standards. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2001;38:2114-30.

Agrawal VK, Basannar DR, Sing RP, Dutt M, Abraham D, Mustafa MS. Coronary risk factors in a rural community. Indian J Public Health. 2006;50(1):19-23.

Gupta R, Prakash H, Gupta VP, Gupta KD. Prevalence and determinants of coronary heart disease in a rural population of India. J Clin Epidemiol 1997; 50 (2): 203-9.

Kaur J, Bains K. A study of the risk factor profile of cardiovascular diseases in rural Punjabi patients. Indian J Public Health. 2006;50(2):97-100.

Gupta R, Prakash H, Majumdar S, Sharma S, Gupta VP. Prevalence of coronary heart disease and coronary risk factors in an urban population of Rajasthan. Indian Heart J. 1995;47(4):331-8.

Wander GS, Khurana SB, Gulati R, Sachar RK, Gupta RK, Khurana S, et al. Epidemiology of coronary heart disease in a rural Punjab population--prevalence and correlation with various risk factors. Indian Heart J. 1994;46(6):319-23.

Gupta R, Gupta VP, Sarna M, Bhatnagar S, Thanvi J, Sharma V, et al. Prevalence of coronary heart disease and risk factors in an urban Indian population: Jaipur Heart Watch. Indian Heart J. 2002;54(1):59-66.