Published: 2019-02-22

A cross-sectional survey of Indians in Kuwait with risk factors for coronary artery disease

Sangeeta Purohit, Prashant Purohit


Background: The Indian sub-population is the biggest among the foreigners in Kuwait. Due to the harsh weather conditions most of the time in the year there is less inclination towards a healthy lifestyle. The present study was conducted to determine the extent of the Indian population living in Kuwait having the risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD).

Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted including 400 subjects aged 18 years or more (346 males and 54 females). They were subjected to general physical examination, and were asked to respond to a standard questionnaire.

Results: Significantly more females than males were found to be overweight (63% vs. 43.9%, p<0.01) or obese (16.7% vs. 4.3%, p<0.005). Females also had higher proportions than males in having inadequate physical activity (79.6% vs. 53.2%, p<0.001). Significantly more males were having an inadequate intake of fruits and vegetables as compared to females (34.7% vs. 18.5%, p<0.005). There was no significant difference between the genders in proportions of hypertension, smoking, and diabetes. Overweight, hypertension, and inadequate physical activity showed a rising trend with increasing age. The studied population was compared with several geographically different populations, as well as the different populations living in India.

Conclusions: As the stay and the jobs of Indians in Kuwait depend upon their health-status, prevention of CAD is of paramount importance. Looking at the levels of the prevalence of several risk factors, multilevel interventions are needed for reducing the CAD-morbidity and mortality.


Indians in Kuwait, Risk factors, Coronary artery disease

Full Text:



Reddy KS, Yusuf S. Emerging epidemic of cardiovascular disease in developing countries. Circulation. 1998;97:596–601.

O’Donnell MJ, Xavier D, Liu L. Risk factors for ischaemic and intracerebral haemorrhagic stroke in 22 countries (the INTERSTROKE study): a case-control study. Lancet. 2010;376(9735):112-3.

Yusuf S, Hawken S, Ounpuu S, Dans T, Avezum A, Lanas F, McQueen M, et al. Effect of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): case-control study. Lancet. 2004;364(9438):937-52.

Fuster V. Global Burden of Cardiovascular Disease: Time to Implement Feasible Strategies and to Monitor Results. J the Am College Cardiol. 2014;64(5):520-2.

World Health Organization. NCD global monitoring framework. Available at global_monitoring_framework/en/. Accessed 22 June 2018.

World Health Organization. Draft comprehensive global monitoring framework and targets for the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases. Available at pdf_files/WHA66/A66_8-en.pdf. Accessed 22 June 2018.

United Nations. Sustainable development goals. Available at: Accessed 22 June 2018.

The WHO STEP wise approach to noncommunicable disease risk factor surveillance (STEPS). World Health Organization. Available at Accessed 26 September 2018.

Benjamin EJ, Blaha MJ, Chiuve SE, Cushman M, Das SR, Deo R, et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics–2017 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2017;135(10):e146–603.

Nag T, Ghosh A. Cardiovascular disease risk factors in Asian Indian population: A systematic review. J Cardiovasc Dis Res. 2013;4(4):222–8.

Gus I, Fischmann A, Medina C. Prevalence of Risk Factors for Coronary Artery Disease in the Brazilian State of Rio Grande do Sul. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2002;78(5).

Prabhakaran D, Jeemon P, Roy A. Cardiovascular diseases in India: current Epidemiology and future directions. Circulation. 2016;133:1605–1620.

Anjana RM, Pradeepa R, Das AK. ICMR–INDIAB Collaborative Study Group. Physical activity and inactivity patterns in India – results from the ICMR-INDIAB study (Phase-1). Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2014;11:26.

Reddy KS, Prabhakaran D, Jeemon P, Thankappan KR, Joshi P, Chaturvedi V, Ramakrishnan L, Ahmed F. Educational status and cardiovascular risk profile in Indians. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2007;104:16263–8.

Das A, Pal S, Ghosh A. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors by habitat: a study on adult asian indians in West Bengal, India. Anthropologischer Anzeiger. 2011;68(3):253-264.

SARRC Development Goals-India Country Report-2013. Available at: upload/SAARC_Development_Goals_%20India_Country_Report_29aug13.pdf. New Delhi, India: Central Statistics Office, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of India; Accessed 27 June 2018.

Goyal A, Kahlon P, Jain D, Soni RK. Trend in prevalence of coronary artery disease and risk factors over two decades in rural Punjab. Heart Asia 2017;9:1-6.

Gupta R, Kaul V, Agrawal A, Guptha S, Gupta VP. Cardiovascular risk according to educational status in India. Prev Med. 2010;51:408-11.

Kaul U, Natrajan S, Dalal J, Saran RK. Prevalence and control of cardiovascular risk factors in stable coronary artery outpatients in India compared with the rest of the world: An analysis from international CLARIFY registry. Ind Heart J. 2017;69:447-52.