Prevalence and risk factors associated with prehypertension and hypertension among attendants of patients at a rural tertiary care institute of Haryana
Keywords:Hypertension, Prehypertension, Prevalence, Risk factors
Background: Hypertension (HTN) is the leading risk factor for death and disability globally and disproportionately impacts low-and middle-income countries. HTN is present in 25% of urban and 10% of rural subjects in India. Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of pre-HTN and HTN among the attendants of patients at a rural tertiary care institute of Haryana.
Methods: This was a hospital-based cross-sectional study. A total of 309 attendants of patients were enrolled for this study. Diagnosis of pre-HTN and HTN was done on the basis of seventh joined national committee guidelines. Data were collected on a semi-structured proforma and were analysed by using R software.
Results: The prevalence of pre-HTN and HTN was 18.4% and 21.4% respectively. Both the pre-HTN and HTN were significantly higher in males (p=0.002) and in the age group of 45 to 55 years (p<0.001). The multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed that sex, age >55 years and BMI >23 kg/m2 were significantly associated with pre-HTN and HTN.
Conclusions: The prevalence of both prehypertension and hypertension is high in rural Haryana. This makes the people of this area vulnerable to several chronic diseases. The ﬁndings warrant urgent measures to lower the risk factors in rural communities. So, programs are needed to improve the surveillance systems and implementation of community based screening programs for early detection of hypertension.
Lim SS, Vos T, Flaxman AD, Danaei G. A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990–2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. The lancet. 2013;380(9859):2224–60.
Campbell NRC, Lackland DT, Niebylski ML, World Hypertension League Committee; International Society of Hypertension Executive Committee. High Blood Pressure: Why Prevention and Control Are Urgent and Important—A 2014 Fact Sheet From the World Hypertension League and the International Society of Hypertension. J Clin Hypertension. 2014;16(8):551–3.
Lopez AD, Mathers CD, Ezzati M, Jamison DT, Murray CJ. Global and regional burden of disease and risk factors, 2001: systematic analysis of population health data. The Lancet. 2006;367(9524):1747-57.
World Health Organization. A global brief on hypertension: silent killer, global public health crisis: World Health Day. World Health Organization, Geneva; 2013.
Gupta R. Convergence in urban–rural prevalence of hypertension in India. J human hypertension. 2016;30(2):79.
Panesar S, Chaturvedi S, Saini NK, Avasthi R, Singh A. Prevalence and predictors of hypertension among residents aged 20-59 years of a slum-resettlement colony in Delhi, India. WHO South-East Asia J Public Health. 2013;2:83-7.
Kishore J, Gupta N, Kohli C, Kumar N. Prevalence of hypertension and determination of its risk factors in rural Delhi. Int J hypertension. 2016;2016.
Jha SK, Vandana S, Rawat CMS, Ahmad S, Kumar S, Kaur A. Prevalence and determinants of pre-hypertension and hypertension among adults in an urban area in Haldwani city of Nainital: A population based cross-sectional study. Indian J Prev Soc Med. 2015;46:42-8.
Kishore J. National Health Programs of India. 11th edition. Century Publications, New Delhi: India; 2014.
Falkner B. American Academy of Pediatrics. National high blood pressure education program working group on high blood pressure in children and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2004;114(2):4.
World Health Organization. Global Health Observatory data repository. Tech Rep, 2015. Available at: http://apps.who.int/gho/data/?theme =main. Accessed on 1 January 2019.
Tabrizi JS, Sadeghi-Bazargani H, Farahbakhsh M, Nikniaz L, Nikniaz Z. Prevalence and associated factors of prehypertension and hypertension in Iranian Population: The Lifestyle Promotion Project (LPP). PloS one. 2016;11(10):e0165264.
Everett B, Zajacova A. Gender differences in hypertension and hypertension awareness among young adults. Biodemography Social Biol. 2015;61(1):1-7.
Gupta R, Kaul V, Bhagat N, Agarwal M, Gupta VP, Misra A, et al. Trends in prevalence of coronary risk factors in an urban Indian population: Jaipur Heart Watch 4. Indian Heart J. 2007;59:346-53.
Reddy KS, Prabhakaran D, Chaturvedi V, Jeemon P, Thankappan KR, Ramakrishnan L, et al. Methods for establishing a surveillance system for cardiovascular diseases in Indian industrial populations. Bull World Health Organ. 2006;84:461-9.
Deepa R, Shanthirani CS, Pradeepa R, Mohan V. Is the ‘rule of halves’ in hypertension still valid? Evidence from the Chennai Urban Population Study. J Assoc Physicians India. 2003;51:153-7.
Hart JT. Hypertension. Library of the General Practitioner Series. Churchill Livingstone; 1980.
Abebe SM, Berhane Y, Worku A, Getachew A. Prevalence and associated factors of hypertension: a crossectional community based study in Northwest Ethiopia. PLoS One. 2015;10(4).
Mishra CP, Kumar S. Risk factors of hypertension in a rural area of Varanasi. Indian J Prev Social Med. 2011;42(1):101-11.
Srivastava SH, Chakravarty A. Correlation between anthropometric measurements and nutrient intake of different weight status of women. Asian J Home Sci. 2010;5(1):145-8.
Reddy SS, Prabhu GR. Prevalence and risk factors of hypertension in adults in an Urban Slum, Tirupati, AP. Indian J community med. 2005;30(3):84.
Radhika G, Sathya RM, Sudha V, Ganesan A, Mohan V. Dietary salt intake and hypertension in an urban south Indian population–[CURES-53]. J Assoc Physicians India. 2007;55(6):405-11.