Multidrug resistant, extensively drug resistant and pan drug resistant gram negative bacteria at a tertiary care centre in Bhubaneswar

Dipti Pattnaik, Subhra Snigdha Panda, Nipa Singh, Smrutilata Sahoo, Ipsa Mohapatra, Jagadananda Jena


Background: Multidrug resistance has emerged as a challenge in health care settings. Again increasing prevalence of multidrug resistant (MDR), extensively drug resistant (XDR) and pan drug resistant (PDR) gram negative bacteria is making the condition more critical because of limited options of antibiotics, increasing morbidity, mortality and hospital stay of the patients. The present study is carried out with an aim to estimate the prevalence of MDR, XDR, PDR gram negative bacteria in a tertiary care hospital.

Methods: Total of 912 gram negative bacterial isolates obtained from various samples of indoor patients in a tertiary care hospital, were studied over a period of six months. The bacteria were identified by conventional methods. Antibiotic sensitivity testing was done by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of antibiotics for the resistant isolates were detected by Vitek-2 automated method. MDR, XDR and PDR were determined according to the definitions suggested by European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Prevalence of extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) producers was estimated.

Results: Out of 912 isolates, prevalence of MDR, XDR and PDR were 66.12%, 34.32% and 0.98% respectively. Prevalence of MDR and XDR were higher in ICUs than clinical wards (p<0.0001). Prevalence of ESBL producers was 48.4%.

Conclusions: The study highlights increased prevalence of multidrug resistant and extensively drug resistant strains in our hospital. Stringent surveillance, proper implementation of hospital infection control practices and antimicrobial stewardship will help in limiting the emergence and spread of drug resistant strains.


Gram negative bacilli, Multi drug resistant, Extensively drug resistant, Pan drug resistant

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