Applying health belief model for the assessment of community knowledge, attitude and prevention practices following a dengue epidemic in a township in Selangor, Malaysia

Hidayatulfathi Othman, Zul-'Izzat Ikhwan Zaini, Norhafizah Karim, Nor Azimah Abd Rashid, Muhammad Badrul Hisham Abas, Mazrura Sahani, Rozita Hod, Faiz Daud, Saiful Azlan Nordin, Nor Azwani Mohamed Nor


Background: Dengue fever is endemic in Malaysia and continues to be a public health concern. Selangor was the top hit and there is a paucity of information on knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of Bandar Baru Bangi residents regarding dengue infection. Therefore, the objective of this study is to describe dengue related knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of residents of Bandar Baru Bangi.

Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 152 residents from Section 3 and Section 8, Bandar Baru Bangi attending the dengue awareness events was conducted. The information on socio-demographic characteristics of the participants and their knowledge, attitude and practice on dengue fever was collected using a structured questionnaire.

Results: The results showed that the residents only 52% had sufficient knowledge about the dengue vectors, signs, symptoms, and modes of transmission. However, approximately all the respondents considered dengue as serious but preventable disease to which they are vulnerable to. Television/radio was the predominant sources of information about dengue fever. Knowledge on dengue is associated with prevention practice. But the self-efficacy has a significant impact between the owner and tenant house (p=0.010, p<0.05). Female has higher self-efficacy compare to male.

Conclusions: As conclusion, findings suggest that despite the residents of Bandar Baru Bangi have moderate knowledge level about dengue fever nevertheless; they still adopted the preventive measures suggested by the guidelines from Ministry of Health. Therefore, health program planners and practitioners need to identify why the dengue fever still rampant among the population.


Dengue, Health belief model, KAP, Aedes, Dengue free community

Full Text:



World Health Organization. Dengue and severe dengue, 2016. Available at: mediacentre/factsheets/fs117/en/. Accessed on 20 August 2016.

Samir B, Peter WG, Oliver JB, Jane PM, Andrew WF, et al. The global distribution and burden of dengue. Nature. 2013;496(7446):504–7.

World Health Organization. A global belief on vector-borne disease. Geneva, Switzeland: WHO, 2014.

Ministry of Health Malaysia. Press statement “Ops Mega” Achievement, 2014.

Rahman AA, Zainuddin H, Minhat HS, Juni MH, Mazeli MI. Community perception towards dengue and dengue prevention program among residences of a rural settlement in Jempol, Negeri Sembilan. Int J Public Health Clin Sci. 2014;1:13–26.

Dhimal M, Aryal KK, Dhimal ML, Gautam I, Singh SP, Bhusal CL, et al. Knowledge, attitude, and pratice regarding dengue fever among the healthy population on highland and lowland communities in Central Nepal. PLoS One. 2014;9(7):e102028.

Shuaib F, Todd D, Campbell-Stennett D, Ehiri J, Jolly PE. Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding dengue infection in Westmoreland, Jamaica. West Indian Med J. 2010;59:139.

Wan Rozita W, Yap B, Veronica S, Mohammad A, Lim K. Knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) survey on dengue fever in an urban Malay residential area in Kuala Lumpur. Malays J Public Health Med. 2006;6:62–7.

Acharya A, Goswami K, Srinath S, Goswami A. Awareness about dengue syndrome and related preventive practices amongst residents of an urban resettlement colony of South Delhi. J Vector Borne Dis. 2005;42:122–7.

Ibrahim NKR, Al-Bar A, Kordey M, Al-Fakeeh A. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices relating to Dengue fever among females in Jeddah high schools. J Infect Public Health. 2009;2:30–40.

Kittigul L, Suankeow K, Sujirarat D, Yoksan S. Dengue hemorrhagic fever: knowledge, attitude and practice in Ang Thong Province, Thailand. Southern Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2003;34(2):385–92.

Nalongsack S, Yoshida Y, Morita M, Sosouphanh K, Sakamoto J. Knowledge, attitude and practice regarding dengue among people in Pakse, Laos Nagoya. J Med Sci. 2009;71:29–37.

Itrat A, Khan A, Javaid S, Kamal M, Khan H, Javed S, et al. Knowledge, awareness and practices regarding dengue fever among the adult population of dengue hit cosmopolitan. PLoS One. 2008;3:e2620.

Van Benthem BHB, Khantikul N, Panart K, Kessels PJ, Somboon P, Oskam L. Knowledge and use of prevention measures related to dengue in Northern Thailand. Trop Med Int Health. 2002;7(11):993–1000.

World Health Organization. Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever: Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control. 2nd Ed. Geneva: WHO, 1997. Available at: Accessed on 20 August 2016.

Degallier N, Vilarinhos PTR, Carvalho MSL, Knox MB, Caetano JJr. People's knowledge and practice about dengue, its vectors, and control means in Brasilia (DF), Brazil: Its relevance with entomological factors. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2000;16(2):114–23.

Wong LP, Shakir SMM, Atefi N, Abu Bakar S. Factors affecting dengue prevention practices: Nationwide survey of the Malaysian Public. PLoS One. 2015;10:0122890.

Sutton S. A critical review of the Transtheoretical Model Applied to Smoking Cessation. In: Norman P, Abraham C, Conner M, eds. Understanding and changing health behaviour: From health beliefs to self-regulation. London: Harwood Academic Publishers; 2000:207-25.

Lennon JL. The use of the health belief model in dengue health education. Dengue Bull. 2005;29:217–9.

Affendi I, Loke YK, Smith JR, Papageorgio A, Hunter PR. Mediational Effects of Self Efficacy Dimensions In The Relationship Between Knowledge Of Dengue And Dengue Preventive Behavior With Respect To Control Of Dengue Outbreaks: A Structural Equation Model Of A Cross Sectional Survey. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7(9):1-10.

Castro M, Sanche ZL, Perez D, Sebrango C, Shkedy Z, Van der Stuyft P. The relationship between Economic Status, Knowledge on Dengue, Risk Perception and Practices. PLOS One. 2013;8(2):1-8.

Snehalatha K, Ramaiah K, Kumar KV, Das P. The mosquito problem and type and costs of personal protection measures used in rural and urban communities in Pondicherry region, South India. Acta tropica. 2003;88:3–9.

Swaddiwudhipong W, Chaovakiratipong C, Nguntra P, Koonchote S, Khumklam P, Lerdlukanavonge P. Effect of health education on community participation in control of dengue hemorrhagic fever in an urban area of Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1992;23:200–6.

Leontsini E, Gil E, Kendall C, Clark GG. Effect of a community-based Aedes aegypti control programmed on mosquito larval production sites in El Progreso, Honduras. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1993;87:267–71.

Lloyd LS, Winch P, Ortega-Canto J, Kendall C. The design of a community-based health education intervention for the control of Aedes aegypti. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1994;50:401–11.