A household survey to assess prevalence of malaria and risk factors under urban field practice area, Dakshin Kannada

Leena Salunkhe, Animesh Gupta, Shahul Hameed


Background: Socio-demographic and environmental factors are associated with the malaria prevalence. Hence assessment of these factors would potentially help in identification of the possible risk factors among households with their health seeking behavior and would help to adopt the most suitable and appropriate malaria control strategies.

Methods: A baseline household survey was carried out in the study site Lingappayakadu, Mulki, Manglore involving all study population (n=4954) from July to September 2017. Total 1043 households were interviewed with predesigned semi- structured questionnaire with informed written consent. Blood samples were collected from fever cases and results were confirmed for malaria within 24 hours. Anti-malarial drugs including the Primiaquine were given to all the positive cases. Data regarding socio-demographic characteristics and health seeking behavior were also collected from study population.

Results: The prevalence of malaria in the study was 1.41% and slide positivity was 51.09%. The presence of malaria cases was statistically significant with number of members present in the family (p=0.00001, X2=199.37), age group (p=0.0168, X2=8.17) type of working status (p=0.0293, X2=7.06). Environmental factors like type of housing (p=0.3366, OR=1.3854), peri-domestic sanitation (p=0.1646, OR=0.554), Mosquito breeding (p=0.4504, OR=0.6757), indoor mosquitoes (p=1.000, OR=0.6173) and mosquito bite prevention methods were (p=0.1910, OR=1.7316) not showing any significant difference. Out of 137 fever cases, 70 cases were diagnosed with malaria amongst which 94.3% cases completed anti-malaria drug treatment.

Conclusions: A survey provides data regarding socio-demographic, environmental and health seeking behavior of population. The study did not show any statistically significant association of malaria with many environmental parameters. Health seeking behavior could be analyzed and improved with frequent surveillance methods.


Urban malaria, Survey, Households, Environmental

Full Text:



Shivakumar, Rajesh BV, Kumar A, Achari M, Deepa S, Vyas N. Malarial trend in Dakshina Kannada, Karnataka; An epidemiological assessment from 2004 to 2013. Indian J health Sci Bio Med. Res. 2015;8(2):91-4.

Kantele A, Jokiranta. Review of cases with the emerging fifth human malarial parasite-Plasmodium knowlesi- published in Oxford Academic 2011.

Lathamani K, Kotigadde S. Prevelance of malaria and a comparative study of peripheral blood smear, quantitative buffy coat and malaria antigen rapid test methods in the diagnosis of malaria from Dakshina Kannada District, India. 2013;2(12):671-5.

World malaria report- 2016. WHO (Summary) Geneva: WHO 2016. Available at: iris/bitstream. Accessed on 3 July 2018.

Bekedam H. Message from WHO representative to India on World Malaria Day 2016.Available at Accessed on 3 July 2018.

Reporting of malaria cases a big concern in Karnataka. Available at: article16974196.ece/amp /news/national/Karnataka Available at Accessed on 3 July 2018.

Martens P, Hall L. Malaria on the move: Human population movement and malaria transmission. Emerging Infect Dis. 2000;6(2):28-45.

Sach J, Malaney P. The economic and social burden of malaria. Nature. 2007;415(6872):680-5.

World Health Organisation and UNICEF, World Malaria Report 2008,WHO,Geneva, Switzerland.

Pinchoff J, Chaponda M, Fields TM, Sichivuk J. For the Southern Africa International centres of excellence for malaria research/ individual and household level rise factor associated with Nchelunga district, a region with perennial transmission; a series cross sectional study from 2012 to 2015.

Kasasa S, Asoala V, Gosonui L, Anto F, Adjuik M, Tindana C, et al. Spatio temporal malaria transmission pattterns in Navrongo demographic surveillance site, northern Ghana, Malaria J. 2013;12:63

Sharma RK, Singh MP, Saha KB, Bharti PK, Jain V, Singh PP, et al. Socioeconomic & household risk factors of malaria in tribal areas of Madhya Pradesh, central India. Indian J Med Res. 2015;141:567.

Operational Manual for Malaria-2016-Ver.1, Available at: Accessed on 3 August 2018.

Singh T, Sharma S, Nagesh S. Socio-economic status scales updated for 2017. Int J Res Med Sci. 2017;5:3264-7.

Anvikar AR, Shah N, Dhariwal AC. Epidemiology of Plasmodium Vivax Malaria in India. The Am J Trop Med Hygiene. 2016;95(suppl),108-120.

Thomas S, Ravishankaran S, Asokan A, Justin NAJA, Kalsingh TMJ, Mathai MT, et al. Socio-demographic and household attributes may not necessarily influence malaria: evidence from a cross sectional study of households in an urban slum setting of Chennai, India. Malaria J. 2018;17:4.

Sharma RK, Singh MP, Saha KB, Bharti PK, Jain V, Singh PP, et al. Socioeconomic & household risk factors of malaria in tribal areas of Madhya Pradesh, central India. Indian J Med Res. 2015;141:567.

Ayele DG, Zewotir TT, Mwamb HG. Prevalence and risk factors of malaria in Ethiopia. Malar J. 2012;11:195.

World Health Organization. Guidelines for the Treatment of Malaria. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2006:58.

Tusting LS, Bottomley C, Gibson H, Kleinschmidt I, Tatem AJ, Lindsay SW, et al. Housing Improvements and Malaria Risk in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Multi-Country Analysis of Survey Data. von Seidlein L, ed. PLoS Med. 2017;14(2):e1002234.

Hogarh JN, Antwi-Agyei P, Obiri-Danso K. Application of mosquito repellent coils and associated self-reported health issues in Ghana. Malar J. 2016;15:61.

McNulty CAM, Boyle P, Nichols T, Clappison P, Davey P. The public’s attitudes to and compliance with antibiotics. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2007;60:i63–i68.

Naing PA, Maung TM, Tripathy JP, Oo T, Wai KT, Thi A. Awareness of malaria and treatment-seeking behaviour among persons with acute undifferentiated fever in the endemic regions of Myanmar. Trop Med Health. 2017;45:31.