A cross sectional study on pattern and associated risk factors of musculoskeletal morbidities among government bus drivers in Mangalore, Karnataka

Vinu ., K. S. Premlal, Saranya Nagalingam


Background: Absenteeism, turnover and disability among the drivers appeared to be high. The main conditions leading to disablement among drivers are related to cardiovascular diseases, psychological problems and musculo-skeletal disorders. This study was planned to determine the pattern of musculoskeletal morbidities among government bus drivers in Mangalore, the associated risk factors of musculoskeletal morbidities.

Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted at Mangalore KSRTC Bus Depot among 310 bus drivers over a period of 18 months from 2014 to 2016 yr. The study was conducted in three depots of KSRTC division Mangalore in Mangalore city.

Results: In our study all drivers were males, the mean age 44.88 years. Out of the 310 bus drivers who participated in the study 298 belonged to upper middle class indicating that the KSRTC drivers are financially stable. The common morbidities were musculoskeletal problems especially low back ache 84.8% followed by neck pain 46.8%,about 32.3% had shoulder pain 15.8% had knee joint involvement. The proportion of bus drivers with hypertension and diabetes mellitus was 35.8%and 7.7% respectively. Out of the 310 bus drivers 239 (77.1%) consumes alcohol. The prevalence of smoking was (85.5%) and tobacco chewing was 14.5%.

Conclusions: During our study we found that there is an increased prevalence of chronic conditions like diabetes mellitus and hypertension, this is attributable to the increase stress faced by the drivers in terms of the responsibility they carry to transport the public of all age groups. This unnoticed stress plays a very important part in development of the chronic conditions.


Bus drivers, Occupational environment, Musculoskeletal disorders, Standardized nordic questionnaire

Full Text:



Gangopadhyay S, Das T, Ghoshal G and Biswas P. Questionnaire study to evaluate the predominant causes behind city bus accidents in Calcutta, India. Indian J Physiol Allied Sci. 2005;59(2):33–9.

Tse JLM, Flin R, Mearns K. ‘Bus- ting’ a gut – the strains of an urban bus driver. Paper presented at: Third international conference of traffic and transport psychology; Nottingham, England, 2004.

Szeto GP, Lam P. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders in urban bus drivers. J Occup Rehabil. 2007;17(2):181-98.

Lttmann A, Jager M, Griefahn B. Preventing musculoskeletal disorders in the workplace. Protecting worker’s health series. 2006;12(5):1-4.

Punnett L, Wegman DH. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders: the epidemiologic evidence and the debate. J Electromyography Kinesiol. 2004;14(1):13–23.

Roux CH, Guillemin F, Boini S, Longuetaud F, Arnault N, Hercberg S, et al. Impact of musculoskeletal disorders on quality of life: an inception cohort study. Ann Rheumatic Dis. 2005;64(4):606–11.

Morken T, Riise T, Moen B, Hauge SHV, Holien S, Langedrag A, et al. Low back pain and widespread pain predict sickness absence among industrial workers. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders. 2003;4:21.

Abledu J, Abledu G. Multiple logistic regression analysis of predictors ofmusculoskeletal disorders and disability among bank workers in Kumasi, Ghana. J Ergonomics. 2012;2:2.

Choudhary BS. Attitude alters the risk for development of repetitive strain injury software professionals. IJOEM. 2005;7(1):44-53.

Sadri GH. A Model of Bus Drivers’ Diseases: Risk Factors and Bus Accidents. IMJS. 2002;27(1):12-4.

Borle A, Gunjal S, Jadhao A, Ughade S, Humne A. Musculoskeletal morbidities among bus drivers in city of Central India. Int J Recent Trends Sci Tech. 2012;3(1):29-32.

Madaan V, Chaudhari A. Prevalence and risk factors associated with musculoakeletal pain among students of MGM dental college: A cross sectional survey. J Contempdent. 2012;2(2):22-7.

Hagberg M, Silverstein BA, Wells RV, Smith MJ, Hendrick HW, Carayon P. Work related musculoskeletal disorders: a reference for prevention; Kuorinka I & Forcier L (eds). London: Taylor and Francis; 1995.

Kilbom Å, Armstrong TJ, Buckle P, Fine LJ, Hagberg M, Haring-Sweeney M, et al. Musculoskeletal disorders: Work-related risk factors and prevention. Int J Occupational Environ Health. 1996;2:239-46.

Aslam MW, Tanveer F, Arshad HS. Job-related Musculoskeletal Disorders in Bus Drivers of Lahore, Pakistan. Int J Sci Res. 2016;5(5):6-391.

Onawumi AS, Lucas EB. Ergonomic Investigation of Occupational Drivers and Seat Design of Taxicabs in Nigeria. ARPN J Sci Tech. 2012;2(3):214-20.

Mansfield NJ, Marshall JM. Symptoms of musculoskeletal disorders in stage rally drivers and co-drivers. British J Sports Med. 2001;35(5):314-20.

Obelenis V, Gedgaudienė D. Study on occupational and nonoccupational risk factors and health of motor transport workers. Transport. 2003;18(4):189-92.