Prevention of diabetes type 2 by adjustment of lifestyle and diet

Alaa Noor Elahi, Fardus Almarghalani, Hussain Al-Ramadhan, Al Hassan Jalal, Haya Alnafisah, Abdulaziz Miyajan, Naif Alharbi, Ohood Allogmani, Dhiyaa Shahadah, Amjad Al lahyani


Type 2 diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic health conditions around the world and is a major challenge to health care providers. Its incidence across the world is increasing. There is long-term affection of pancreas before symptoms start, allowing for a large window for early detection and prevention of the disease. We conducted this review using a comprehensive search of MEDLINE, PubMed, and EMBASE, January 1987, through March 2017. The following search terms were used: diabetes type 2, prevention diabetes type 2, effects of lifestyle on health, alcohol and diabetes, smoking and diabetes, preventive strategies for diabetes type 2. Our aim in this study is to understand the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus type 2 with regards to the risk factors and how to prevent them. Diabetes mellitus type 2 is considered a preventable disease, therefore, studying its risk factors and trying to reduce them is very important. Even minor modifications in risk factors of the disease could achieve significant reduction in incidence and progression of diabetes. Weight loss, improved dietary intake, and increased exercise levels are the most important interventions that will lead to significant decrease in the occurrence of the disease.


Type 2 diabetes mellitus, Effects of lifestyle on health, Alcohol and diabetes, Smoking and diabetes, Preventive strategies for diabetes type 2

Full Text:



King H, Rewers M. Diabetes in adults is now a Third World problem. The WHO Ad Hoc Diabetes Reporting Group. Bull World Health Organ. 1991;69:643-8.

King H, Aubert RE, Herman W H. Global burden of diabetes, 1995-2025: prevalence, numerical estimates, and projections. Diabetes Care. 1998;21:1414-31.

American Diabetes Association. Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2010;1: 62-9.

Olokoba AB, Obateru OA, Olokoba LB. Type 2 diabetes mellitus: a review of current trends. Oman Med J. 2012;27: 269-73.

Eriksson J, Lindstrom J, Tuomilehto J. Potential for the prevention of type 2 diabetes. Br Med Bull. 2001;60:183-99.

6. Ludwig DS, Ebbeling CB. Type 2 diabetes mellitus in children: Primary care and public health considerations. JAMA. 2001;286: 1427-30.

Arita Y, Kihara S, Ouchi N, Takahashi M, Maeda K, Miyagawa J, et al. Paradoxical decrease of an adipose-specific protein, adiponectin, in obesity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999: 257: 79-83.

Lluch A, Herbeth B, Mejean L, Siest G. Dietary intakes, eating style and overweight in the Stanislas Family Study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2000;24:1493-9.

Franz MJ, Bantle JP, Beebe CA, Brunzell JD, Chiasson JL, Garg A, et al. Evidence-based nutrition principles and recommendations for the treatment and prevention of diabetes and related complications. Diabetes Care. 2003;26(1):51-61.

Knott C, Bell S, Britton A. Alcohol Consumption and the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Dose-Response Meta-analysis of More Than 1.9 Million Individuals From 38 Observational Studies. Diabetes Care. 2015;38:1804-12.

Kim SJ, Kim DJ. Alcoholism and diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Metab J. 2012;36:108-15.

Chang SA. Smoking and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Metab J. 2012;36:399-403.

Maddatu J, Anderson-Baucum E, Evans-Molina C. Smoking and the risk of type 2 diabetes. Transl Res. 2017;184:101-07.

Vuori IM. Health benefits of physical activity with special reference to interaction with diet. Public Health Nutr. 2001;4:517-28.

Gutin B, Barbeau P, Owens S, Lemmon CR, Bauman M, Allison J, et al. Effects of exercise intensity on cardiovascular fitness, total body composition, and visceral adiposity of obese adolescents. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;75:818-26.

Dyck RF, Klomp H, Tan L. From "thrifty genotype" to "hefty fetal phenotype": the relationship between high birthweight and diabetes in Saskatchewan Registered Indians. Can J Public Health. 2001;92:340-4.

Ananth CV, Wen SW. Trends in fetal growth among singleton gestations in the United States and Canada, 1985 through 1998. Semin Perinatol. 2002;26:260-7.

Whitaker RC, Dietz WH. Role of the prenatal environment in the development of obesity. J Pediatr. 1998;132:768-76.

Pettitt DJ, Knowler WC. Long-term effects of the intrauterine environment, birth weight, and breast-feeding in Pima Indians. Diabetes Care 1998;21(2):138-41.

Knowler WC, Barrett-Connor E, Fowler SE, Hamman RF, Lachin JM, Walker EA et al. Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med. 2002;346:393-403.

Marrero DG. The prevention of type 2 diabetes:an overview. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2009;3:756-60.

Pan XR, Li GW, Hu YH, Wang JX, Yang WY, An ZX, et al. Effects of diet and exercise in preventing NIDDM in people with impaired glucose tolerance. The Da Qing IGT and Diabetes Study. Diabetes Care. 1997;20:537-44.

Tuomilehto J, Lindstrom J, Eriksson JG, Valle TT, Hamalainen H, Ilanne-Parikka P, et al. Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. N Engl J Med. 2001;344:1343-50.

Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP): description of lifestyle intervention. Diabetes Care. 2002;25:2165-71.

Ramachandran A, Snehalatha C, Mary S, Mukesh B, Bhaskar AD, Vijay V, et al. The Indian Diabetes Prevention Programme shows that lifestyle modification and metformin prevent type 2 diabetes in Asian Indian subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IDPP-1). Diabetologia. 2006;49:289-97.

Rawal LB, Tapp RJ, Williams ED, Chan C, Yasin S, Oldenburg B. Prevention of type 2 diabetes and its complications in developing countries:a review. Int J Behav Med. 2012;19:121-33.

Bo S, Ciccone G, Baldi C, Benini L, Dusio F, Forastiere G, et al. Effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention on metabolic syndrome. A randomized controlled trial. J Gen Intern Med. 2007;22:1695-703.

Hussain A, Claussen B, Ramachandran A, Williams R. Prevention of type 2 diabetes:a review. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2007;76:317-26.