Prevalence of hypertension and co-morbidities among elderly women in rural area: a cross sectional study

Soumyashree M. N., R. G. Viveki


Background: NCDs have been the leading causes of death among women globally for the past three decades and are now responsible for two in every three deaths among women each year. India endorsed the Sustainable Development Goal for health to set a target to decrease premature deaths from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) by one-third by 2030. Aims of the study were to estimate the prevalence of hypertension among the elderly women from rural area and to know the associated co-morbidities among the elderly women from rural area.

Methods: A community based cross sectional study was conducted among elderly women >60 yrs. Data was collected by using pre tested structured questionnaire, which contained basic information like name, age, education & socioeconomic status, occupation, marital status, known case of hypertension, family history, any other co- morbidities.

Results: 65.2% of the participants had normal blood pressure, 34.7% were hypertensive. 38% of study subjects living in joint family were hypertensive, majority (53.8% and 85.6%) of them who were obese and had a history of tobacco intake were hypertensive. The association between hypertension and these variables was found to be statistically significant.

Conclusions: 15.4% of the study participants were newly detected hypertensives. This indicates a need for awareness to be created among the elderly women regarding hypertension risk factors, to sensitize them for regular medical check-ups to ensure prevention and early detection of hypertension.


Hypertension, Co-morbidities, Rural area, Elderly women

Full Text:



Sheth AM, Jadav PA. Prevalence and factors affecting hypertension among old age population in rural area. Int J Comm Med Pub Health. 2016;3:1866-71.

Lloyd-Sherlock P, Beard J, Minicuci N, Ebrahim S, Chatterji S. Hypertension among older adults in low and middle-income countries: prevalence, awareness and control. Int J Epidemiol. 2014;43:116-28.

Bonita R, Beaglehole R. Women and NCDs: Overcoming the neglect. Glob Health Action. 2014;7:237-42.

Midha T, Lalchandani A, Nath B, Kumari R, Pandey U. Prevalence of isolated diastolic hypertension and associated risk factors among adults in Kanpur, India. Indian heart J. 2012;64:374-9.

Srinath Reddy K, Shah B, Varghese C, Ramadoss A. Responding to the threat of chronic diseases in India. Lancet. 2005;366:1744–9.

Ghosh S, Mukhopadhyay S, Barik A. Sex differences in the risk profile of hypertension: a cross-sectional study. BMJ Open. 2016;6:1008-15.

Open Working Group Proposal for Sustainable Development Goals. http://sustainabledevelopment. Accessed 18 February 2018.

Kokiwar PR, Gupta SS. Prevalence of hypertension in a rural community of central India. Int J Biol Med Res. 2011;2(4):950-3.

Kumar C, Sagar V, Kumar M, Kiran KA. Awareness about hypertension and its modifiable risk factors among adult population in a rural area of Ranchi district of Jharkhand, India. Int J Comm Med Pub Health. 2016;3:1069-73.

Zygmuntowicz M, Owczarek A, Elibol A, Chudek J. Comorbidities and the quality of life in hypertensive patients. Pol Arch Med Wewnętrznej. 2012;122:7-8.

Chinnakali P, Mohan B, Upadhyay R P, Singh A K, Srivastava R, and Yadav K. Hypertension in the Elderly: Prevalence and Health Seeking Behavior. North Am J Med Sci. 2012;4(11):558–62.

Rao CR, Kamath VG, Shetty A, Kamath A. High blood pressure prevalence and Significant Correlates: A Quantitative Analysis from Coastal Karnataka, India. Hindawi Publish Corp. 2013;2013:1-6.

Singh JP, Gupta SB, Singh AK. Lifestyle habits and diseases amongst rural geriatrics population. Int J Community Med Public Health. 2016;3:957-61.

Vimala A, Ranji SA, Jyosna MT, Chandran V, Mathews SR, Pappachan JM. The Prevalence, Risk Factors and Awareness of Hypertension in an Urban Population of Kerala. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 2009;20(4):685-9.

Prabhakaran D, Shah P, Chaturvedi V, Ramakrishnan L, Manhapra A, Reddy KS. Cardiovascular risk factor prevalence among men in a large industry of northern India. Natl Med J India. 2005;18:59-65.

Pratim DP, Bhaswati S, Nilanjan G, Ashique FK, Chanda Subhasis C, Arpita D, et al. Hypertension and Related Morbidity among Geriatric Population of Eastern India. Mat Soc Med. 2012;24(1):29-33.

Sheth AM, Jadav PA. Prevalence and factors affecting hypertension among old age population in rural area. Int J Community Med Public Health 2016;3:1866-71.

Shraddha K, Prashantha B, Prakash B. Study on morbidity pattern among elderly in urban population of Mysore, Karnataka, India. Int J Med Biomed Res. 2012;1(3):215-23.