DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20162040

A cross-sectional study on depression from rural India

Sadia R. Safwi, Ali Amir, Najam Khalique, Rakesh K. Gaur

Abstract


Background: Depression has been recorded since antiquity. It is an illness that affects both the mind and the body and is a leading cause of disability, workplace absenteeism, decreased productivity and high suicide rates. The present study was conducted in the rural field practice areas of Department of Community Medicine, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and severity of depression in the study population and to assess the knowledge regarding causes of depression.

Methods: 360 adult respondents were chosen using systematic random sampling to participate in the study. Face to face interviews were then conducted using a semi-structured proforma for collecting the data for socio-demographic and other factors. Depression in the subjects was assessed using the structured and pre-validated Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9).

Results: The overall prevalence of depression was 11.9%. Majority of the subjects had moderate grades of depression. But knowledge regarding the causes of depression still comprised of certain supernatural causes.

Conclusions: Rates of depression were quite comparable with the other studies. Depression was twice more in females. Apart from increasing mental health services and integrating this with general health services in our community there is also a dire need to focus on greater Information, Education and Communication activities regarding awareness of causes of depression and its prevention. 


Keywords


Adult, Depression, India, Knowledge, Prevalence, Risk factors

Full Text:

PDF

References


World Health Organization (WHO,2012). Depression. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2012. Available at: http://www.who.int/ topics/ depression/en/.

World Health Organization (WHO, 2012). Fact sheet on depression. Depression. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2012. Available at: http://www.who.int/ mediacentre/ factsheets/ fs369/ en/ index.html.

World Health Organization (WHO, 2012). Mental Health. Suicide prevention (SUPRE). Geneva: World Health Organization. 2012. Available at: http://www.who.int/ mental_health/ prevention/ suicide/ suicideprevent/en/.

Vyas JN, Tyagi D. Textbook of Postgraduate Psychiatry, 2nd ed. New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers;2008.

World Health Organization (WHO, 2012). Sixty-fifth world health assembly. Geneva, World Health Organization; 2012. Available at: http://www.who.int/ mediacentre/ events/ 2012/ wha65/ journal/en/index4.html.

Kochhar PH, Rajyadhyaksha SS, Suvarna VR. Translation and validation of brief patient health questionnaire against DSM IV as a tool to diagnose depressive disorder in Indian patients. J Postgrad Med. 2007;53:102-7.

Swami V, Loo PW, Furnham A. Public knowledge and beliefs about depression among urban and rural Malays in Malaysia. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2009;56:480-96.

Kishore J, Gupta A, Jiloha RC, Bantman P. Myths beliefs and perceptions about mental disorders and health seeking behaviour in Delhi, India. Indian J Psychiatry. 2011;53:324-29.

Ross MH, Hewison J, Hirst J, Dowswell T, Holt A, Brunskill P, et al. Antenatal home blood pressure monitoring: a pilot randomized controlled trial. Br J ObstetGynaecol. 2000;107:217-21.

Stevinson C, Ernst E. A pilot study of hypericumperforatum for the treatment of premenstrual syndrome. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 2000;107:870-76.

Browne RH. On the use of a pilot sample for sample size determination. Stat Med. 1995;14:1933-40.

World Health Organization (WHO,2006). Health system performance assessment. World Health Survey, 2003, India. International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS). New Delhi, World Health Organisation (WHO)-India-WROffice; 2006. Available at: http://www.who.int/healthinfo/survey/ whs_hspa_book.pdf.

Poongothi S, Pradeepa R, Ganesan A, Mohan V. Prevalence of depression in a large urban south Indian population. The Chennai urban rural epidemiology study (Cures -70). PloS One. 2009;4:1-6.

Danesh NA, Landeen J. Relation between depression and socio-demographic factors. Int J Ment Health Syst. 2007;1:4.

Barua A, Acharya D, Nagaraj K, Bhat HV, Nair NS. Depression in elderly: A cross-sectional study in rural south India. J Int Med Sci Acad. 2007;20:259-61.

Jain RK, Aras RY. Depression in geriatric population in urban slums of Mumbai. Indian J Pub Health. 2007;51:112-3.

Lorant V, Deliege D, Eaton W, Robert A, Philippot P, Ansseauet M et al. Socioeconomic inequalities in depression: a meta-analysis. Am J Epidemiol. 2003;157:98-112.

Reynolds L. Shelter: full house? How overcrowded housing affects families (2005). Report Old street, London. Available at:http://england.shelter.org.uk/ professional_resources/policy_and_research/policy_library/policy_library_folder/full_house_how_overcrowded_housing_affects_families.

Speizman B. The association between early parental loss and adulthood depression. Mind matters: The Wesleyan Journal of Psychology. 2006;1:19-27.

Kendler KS, Sheth K, Gardner CO, Prescott CA. Childhood parental loss and risk for first-onset of major depression and alcohol dependence: The time-decay of risk and sex differences. Psychol Med. 2002;32:1187-94.

Roy A. Early parental death and adult depression. Psychol Med. 1983;13:861-65.

Li X, Sundquist J, Sundquist K. Age-specific familial risks of depression: a nation-wide epidemiological study from Sweden. J Psychiatr Res. 2008;42:808-14.

Braam AW, PrinceMJ, Beekman ATF, Delespaul P, Dewey ME, Geerlings SW et al. Physical health and depressive symptomsin older Europeans results from Eurodep. Br J Psychiatry. 2005;187:35-42.

Khan TM, Syed A, Sulaiman S, Hassali MA,Anwar M, Wasif G, et al. Community knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs towards depression in the state of Penang, Malaysia .Community Ment Health J. 2010;46:87-92.

Munizza C, Argentero P, Coppo A, Tibaldi G, Giannantonio MD, Picci RL, et al. Public Beliefs and attitudes towards depression in Italy: A national survey. PloS One. 2013;8:1-8.

Swami V, Loo PW, Furnham A. Public knowledge and beliefs about depression among urban and rural Malays in Malaysia. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2009;56:480-96.