Study of prevalence and risk factors of hypertension in adults in an urban slum area of Western Maharashtra, India


  • Manisha L. Bendhari Department of Community Medicine, RCSM Govt. Medical College, Kolhapur, Maharashtra, India 416003
  • Rajendra S. Korade Consultant Paediatrician, Shree Maha- Ganpati Hospital, Titwala, Maharashtra, India 421605
  • Santosh J. Haralkar Department of Community Medicine, Dr. Vaishampayan Memorial Government Medical College, Solapur, Maharashtra, India 413003



Prevalence, Risk factors, Urban slum


Background: Hypertension is an important public health problem, which is common, asymptomatic, readily detectable, having preventable risk factors and often lead to lethal complications (viz. stroke, coronary heart disease) if left untreated. Identification of different risk factors is important for the prevention and control of hypertension. The objectives was to estimate prevalence of hypertension among people of age 20 years and above in an urban slum area and to study the association between risk factors and hypertension.

Methods: A community based cross sectional study was carried out among the adults residing in the urban slum area, catered by U.H.C. of the Department of Community Medicine, Dr. V.M.G.M.C Solapur, Maharashtra, India. The sample size was 1122 adults in the age group of 20 years and above. By using systematic random sampling method, every 5th household was selected and data was collected by house to house visits, clinical examination and interview of study population with a pre-designed pre-tested proforma. Chi- square test and binary logistic regression analysis were used to analyze data.  

Results: The overall prevalence of hypertension was found to be 15.15 %. Prevalence of hypertension was slightly higher in males (15.86%) than prevalence of hypertension in females (14.51%). Age, body mass index, Physical activity, salt intake >5 grams, smoking, family h/o hypertension and waist-hip ratio were significantly associated with hypertension.

Conclusions: Prevalence of hypertension in urban slum area was found to be 15.15%. Age, BMI, Physical activity, salt intake, smoking, family h/o hypertension and WHR are the risk factors found in study.


Gupta R, Guptha S. Strategies for initial management of hypertension. Indian J Med Res. 2010 Nov;132(5):531-42.

Reddy KS. Regional case studies–India. Nestle Nutr Workshop Ser Pediatr Program. 2009;63:15-24; 41-16, 259-68.

Suryakantha AH. Community Medicine with recent advances, 2nd edition. India: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD; 2010. p. 508.

World Health Organization. A global brief on hypertension Silent killer, global public health crisis [Internet]. Geneva 27: WHO Press; 2013 April. p. 5. WHO reference number: WHO/DCO/WHD/2013.2. [cited 2013 May 20]. Available from:

Kar SS, Thakur JS, Virdi NK, Jain S, Kumar R. Risk factors for cardiovascular diseases: is the social gradient reversing in northern India? Natl Med J India. 2010;23(4):206-9.

Shah B, Mathur P. Surveillance of cardiovascular disease risk factors in India: the need & scope. Indian J Med Res. 2010;132(5):634-42.

Park K. Park’s Textbook of preventive and social medicine, 22nd ed. Jabalpur, India: M/s Banarasidas Bhanot publishers; 2013 February. p. 444,447,591,635.

Reddy SS, Prabhu GR. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Hypertension in Adults in an Urban Slum, Tirupati, A. P. Indian J Community Med. 2005; 30(3):84-6.

Anonymous, Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood pressure, The sixth report of Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood pressure (JNC VI), Archives of Internal Medicine. National Institute of Health Publication; 1997 November: pages 11-12. NO. 98-4080.

Pooja, Mittal Y. Prevalence of Hypertension and its Determinants in an Urban Area of Uttarakhand. Asian J Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2013;3(21):12-6.

Chandwani H, Pandor J, Jivarajani P, Jivarajani H. Prevalence and Correlates of Hypertension among Adults in the Urban area of Jamnagar, Gujarat, India. Electronic Physician. 2010;2:52-9.

Mandal PK, Sinha Roy AK, Chatterjee C, Mallik S, Manna N, Sardar JC, Chakrabarty D, Sau M. Burden of Hypertension and its risk factors in an urban community of India: Are we aware and concerned? Sudanese J Public Health. 2010;5(3):130-35.

Gupta M, Parashar P, Nath B, Bansal R. An epidemiological study on hypertension and its dietary correlates in a rural population of Meerut. Indian J Community Health. 2012;24(2):161-5.

Mahmood SE, Srivastava A, Shrotriya VP, Shaifali I, Mishra P. Prevalence and Epidemiological Correlates of Hypertension among Labour Population. National J of Community Med. 2011;2(1):43-8.

Todkar SS, Gujarathi VV, Tapare VS. Period Prevalence and Sociodemographic Factors of Hypertension in Rural Maharashtra: A Cross-Sectional Study. Indian J Community Med. 2009;34(3):183-7.

Undhad AM, Bharodiya PJ, Sonani RP. Correlates of Hypertension among the Bank Employees of Surat City of Gujarat. National J Community Med. 2011;2(1):123-5.

Mahanta TG, Ahmed FU, Mahanta BN, Barua A. Prevalence of Hypertension and its Risk Factors in a Tea Garden Community of Dibrugarh District, Assam. Indian J of Public Health. 2008;52(1):45-7.

Midha T, Idris MZ, Saran RK, Srivastava AK, Singh SK. A Study on the Association between Hypertensive Status and Anthropometric Correlates in the Adult Population of Lucknow District, India. Indian J Prev Soc Med. 2009; 40(1):50-4.

Gothankar JS. Prevalence of Obesity and its Associated Comorbidities amongst Adults. National Journal of Community Medicine. 2011;2(2):221-4.

Sagare SM, Rajderkar SS, Girigosavi BS. Certain Modifiable Risk Factors in Essential Hypertension: A Case-Control Study. National J of Community Med. 2011;2(1):9-13.

Hazarika NC, Narain K, Biswas D, Kalita HC, Mahanta J. Hypertension in the native rural population of Assam. The National Med J India. 2004;17(6):300-4.

Mandal CR, Adak DK, Biswas S, Bharati P. Isolated Systolic Hypertension among the Bhotia of Uttaranchal. Human Biology Review. 2012;1(1):51-6.

Kannan L, Satyamoorthy T.S. An Epidemiological Study of Hypertension in a Rural Household Community. Sri Ramachandra J Med. 2009;2(2):9-13.

Yadav S, Boddula R, Genitta G, Bhatia V, Bansal B, Kongara S, Julka S, Kumar A, Singh HK, Ramesh V, Bhatia E. Prevalence & risk factors of pre-hypertension and hypertension in an affluent north Indian population. Indian J Med Res. 2008;128:712-20.

Agrawal R, Chaturvedi M, Singh S, Gupta SC. An epidemiological study of dietary and exercise habits as correlates of hypertension in persons aged 45 years and above in Agra District. Indian J Community Health. 2012;24(2):91-6.

Sugasri S, Lakshmi UK. Diet, Lifestyle and Hyperlipidemia as Possible Risk Factors among Hypertensive Adults. Int J Applied Biology and Pharmaceutical Tech. 2012;3(1):123-9.

Prabakaran J, Vijayalakshmi N, VenkataRao E. Prevalence of Hypertension among Urban Adult Population (25-64 years) of Nellore, India. Int J Res Dev Health. 2013;1(2):42-9.

Chataut J, Adhikari RK, Sinha NP. The Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Hypertension in Adults Living in Central Development Region of Nepal. Kathmandu Univ Med J. 2011;33(1):13-8.




How to Cite

Bendhari, M. L., Korade, R. S., & Haralkar, S. J. (2016). Study of prevalence and risk factors of hypertension in adults in an urban slum area of Western Maharashtra, India. International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health, 3(10), 2812–2816.



Original Research Articles