Maternal factors associated with low birth weight: a case control study in rural Kerala
Keywords:Maternal factors, Low birth weight, Kerala
Background: Low birth weight (LBW) continues to remain a major public health problem worldwide. There are numerous factors contributing to LBW both maternal and foetal. The maternal risk factors are biologically and socially interrelated. The mortality of low birth weight can be reduced if the maternal risk factors are detected early and managed by simple techniques. This study was conducted to study the maternal risk factors associated with low birth weight.
Methods: A retrospective record based case control study was conducted. Retrospective data collection was done using registers from medical record section of Obstetrics and Gynaecology department. After applying exclusion criteria and checking for completeness of records, we selected 60 cases and 124 matched controls. Data was entered in Microsoft excel and analyzed using SPSS version 16. Students ‘t’ test, chi-square test and odds ratio were used to find out the factors associated with low birth weight.
Results: In the present study, 60 cases and 124 controls were studied. Mean age of mothers in the case group was 24.4±4.7 yrs. and in the control group was 24.8±4.42 yrs. Mean weight of the cases was 62.5±6.89 kg and of the controls was 65.04±7.16 kg. A total of 35% of the cases and 20% of the controls suffered from pregnancy related diseases.
Conclusions: Maternal factors like Socio-economic status, weight, haemoglobin and parity were significantly associated with LBW. Maternal diseases like hypertension, diabetes can result in LBW baby.
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