Patterns of eating associated with the chronic diseases in Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia


  • Hassan Ali Al Sayegh College of Medicine, Al-Ahsa, Eastern province, Saudi Arabia
  • Abdulaziz Adel Al Qurini College of Medicine, Al-Ahsa, Eastern province, Saudi Arabia
  • Abdul Sattar Khan Department of Family & Community Medicine, College of Medicine, Al-Ahsa, Eastern province, Saudi Arabia
  • Sayed Ibrahim Department of Family & Community Medicine, College of Medicine, Al-Ahsa, Eastern province, Saudi Arabia



Chronic diseases, Diabetes, Obesity, Eating patterns, Hypertension


Background: There is increase in the limitation of daily activity of people with chronic diseases. This may be due to multiple factors one of them is the nature of the lifestyle for instance, patterns of eating that the person is following. It is important to sum the dietary behaviors in specific population to see how much is it associated with chronic diseases. Specially, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and sickle cell disease which are endemic diseases in Al-Ahsa. Moreover, no studies have been conducted in this area before. It is known that there is increased obesity, cardiovascular and diabetes prevalence in Al-Ahsa. The study aims to see the association between chronic diseases and eating patterns.

Methods: Cross sectional study, self-reported questionnaire distributed to the population under supervision of the data collectors in Al-Ahsa, during the summer of 2017.

Results: The most prevalent chronic disease is obesity. Then comes hypertension and G6PD. Obesity showed most association with other chronic diseases. Also, eating frozen canned food show associations with obesity, hypertension, G6PD and diabetes.

Conclusions: We concluded that there are certain eating behaviors influences some chronic diseases; there should be a focus on these behaviors to prevent the occurrence of these chronic diseases, especially metabolic diseases. Obesity is the primary concern which may facilitate the developing of hypertension, asthma, diabetes, high cholesterol, G6PD, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, diabetes, sickle cell disease and cardiovascular events. 


Anderson G. Chronic conditions: making the case for ongoing care. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University; 2004.

Kung HC, Hoyert DL, Xu JQ, Murphy SL. Deaths: final data for 2005. National Vital Statistics Rep. 2008;56(10):1-120.

Hyattsville, National Center for Health Statistics. Health, United States, 2007. With chartbook on trends in the health of Americans. National Center Health Statistics; 2007.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National diabetes fact sheet, 2007. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2008.

Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Flegal KM. High body mass index for age among US children and adolescents, 2003–2006. JAMA. 2008;299:2401–5.

Freedman DS, Dietz, WH, Srinivasan SR, Berenson GS. The relation of overweight to cardiovascular risk factors among children and adolescents: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Pediatrics. 1999;103:1175–82.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Prevalence of doctor-diagnosed arthritis and arthritis-attributable activity limitation. United States, 2003–2005. MMWR. 2006;55:1089-92.

Whiting DR, Guariguata L, Weil C, Shaw J. IDF Diabetes Atlas: global estimates of the prevalence of diabetes for 2011 and 2030. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2011;94(3):311–21.

Al-Nozha MM, Abdullah M, Arafah MR, Khalil MZ, Khan NB, Al-Mazrou YY, et al. Hypertension in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med J. 2007;28(1):77-84.

Al-Daghri NM, Al-Attas OS, Alokail MS, Alkharfy KM, Louie SB, Sabico, et al. Chrousos. Decreasing Prevalence of the Full Metabolic Syndrome but a Persistently High Prevalence of Dyslipidemia among Adult Arabs. PLoS One. 2010;5(8):e12159.

Al-Nozha MM, Al-Mazrou YY, Al-Maatouq MA, Arafah MR, Khalil MZ, Khan NB, et al. Obesity in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med J. 2005;26:824–9.

Al-Nozha MM, Arafah MR, Al-Mazrou YY, Al-Maatouq MA, Khan NB, Khalil MZ, et al. Coronary artery disease in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med J. 2004;25:1165–71.

Akbar DH, Ahmed MM, Al-Mughales J. Thyroid dysfunction and thyroid autoimmunity in Saudi type 2 diabetics. Acta Diabetol. 2006;43:14–8.

Alotaibi M, Sickle cell disease in Saudi Arabia: A challenge or not. J Epidemiol Global Health. 2017;7(2):99-101.

Amin TT, Al-Sultan AI, Ali A. Overweight and obesity and their relation to dietary habits and socio-demographic characteristics among male primary school children in Al-Hassa, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Eur J Nutr. 2008;47(6):310-8.

Mahfouz AA, Abdelmoneim I, Khan MY, Daffalla AA, Diab MM, Al-Gelban KS, et al. Obesity and Related Behaviors among Adolescent School Boys in Abha City, Southwestern Saudi Arabia. J Trop Pediatr. 2007;54(2):120–4.

Al-Mutairi RL, Bawazir AA, Ahmed AE, Jradi H. Health Beliefs Related to Diabetes Mellitus Prevention among Adolescents in Saudi Arabia, Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J. 2015;15(3):398–404.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Chronic diseases and their risk factors: the nation’s leading causes of death. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1999.

Quirk-Baillot D, Flament MF, Allen A, Obeid N, Remy B, Falissard B, et al. The Attitudes and Patterns of Eating (APE) Questionnaire: Development and factor analysis in a U.S. Adolescent Community Sample. 2012;17(2):147-56.

Gosadi IM. Assessment of the environmental and genetic factors influencing prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med J. 2016;37(1):12–20.

Al-Rubeaan KA, Al-Manaa HA, Khoja TA, Al-Sharqawi AH, Aburisheh KH, Youssef AM, et al. Health care services provided to type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med J. 2015;36(10):1216-25.

Adnan M, Karim S, Khan S, Al-Wabel NA. Comparative evaluation of metered-dose inhaler technique demonstration among community pharmacists in Al Qassim and Al-Ahsa region, Saudi-Arabia. Saudi Pharm J. 2015;23(2):138–42.

Ahmed AM, Hersi A, Mashhoud W, Arafah MR, Abreu PC, Al Rowaily MA, et al. Cardiovascular risk factors burden in Saudi Arabia: The Africa Middle East Cardiovascular Epidemiological (ACE) study. Journal of the Saudi Heart Association. PLoS One. 2014;9(8):e102830.

Luppino FS, de Wit LM, Bouvy PF, Stijnen T, Cuijpers P, Penninx BW, et al. Overweight, obesity, and depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2010;67(3):220-9.

Hoare E, Skouteris H, Fuller-Tyszkiewicz M, Millar L, Allender. Associations between obesogenic risk factors and depression among adolescents: a systematic review. S Obes Rev. 2014;15(1):40-51.

Di Pilla M, Bruno RM, Taddei S, Virdis A. Gender differences in the relationships between psychosocial factors and hypertension. 2016;93:58–64.

World Health Organization. World Health Statistics 2012. France: World Health Organization; 2012.

Khaodhiar L, Cummings S, Apovian CM. Treating diabetes and prediabetes by focusing on obesity management. Curr Diab Rep. 2009;9:348–54.

Poirier P, Giles TD, Bray GA, Hong Y, Stern JS, Pi-Sunyer FX, et al. Obesity and cardiovascular disease: pathophysiology, evaluation, and effect of weight loss. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2006;26:968.




How to Cite

Al Sayegh, H. A., Al Qurini, A. A., Khan, A. S., & Ibrahim, S. (2017). Patterns of eating associated with the chronic diseases in Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia. International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health, 4(10), 3517–3523.



Original Research Articles