A study on prevalence of myopia and its associated factors in school children of Salem, Tamil Nadu
Keywords:Myopia, School children, Tamilnadu
Background: Myopia is the major refractive error having a worldwide prevalence of 1.5 billion. Children with Myopia feel difficulties in viewing blackboard in school; they avoid outdoor activities and get isolated from the peer groups. Untreated myopia may lead to Macular degeneration, Glaucoma, Cataract, Retinal detachment. Thus this study was carried out. The aim of the study to find out the prevalence of myopia among school children and its associated factors.
Methods: The study was a cross sectional study carried out among students of government higher secondary school, Sarkar Kollapatti, Salem. Total sample size of 854 Students from class 6-12 was selected by simple random sampling. Students were examined by Snellen’s chart, non-cycloplegic auto refractometry and by pin hole test. Finally all data were entered in EPIDATA and analysed in IBM SPSS software version 20.
Results: After complete analysis, prevalence of myopia was 11.7% of which 46% were boys and 54% were girls. Among students of age 8 to 19 years, the most common age group involved was 14-17 years of age followed by students of 10-13 years of age. Time spent on visual gadgets was the major factor associated with myopia. Familial predisposition, average amount of time a person spends on near work showed significant association with myopia.
Conclusions: This study throws light on prevalence of myopia in semi-urban school children & various factors associated with myopia. Students with myopia were referred to Department of Ophthalmology, GMKMCH and thus they were prevented from further complications due to myopia and improve the academic performance.
Facts About Myopia. National Eye Institute. Available at: https://nei.nih.gov/health/errors/ myopia Accessed on 3 March 2017.
Hyman L, Gwiazda J, Hussein M, Norton TT, Wang Y, Marsh-Tootle W, et al. Relationship of age, sex, and ethnicity with myopia progression and axial elongation in the correction of myopia evaluation trial. Arch Ophthalmol Chic Ill. 2005;123(7):977–87.
Holden BA, Fricke TR, Wilson DA, Jong M, Naidoo KS, Sankaridurg P, et al. Global Prevalence of Myopia and High Myopia and Temporal Trends from 2000 through 2050. Ophthalmology. 2016;123(5):1036–42.
Rohit Saxena, Praveen Vashist, Vimla menon. Is Myopia a public health in India? Indian J Community Med. 2013;38(2):83-5.
Saw S-M, Gazzard G, Shih-Yen EC, Chua W-H. Myopia and associated pathological complications. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt J Br Coll Ophthalmic Opt Optom. 2005;25(5):381–91.
Saxena R, Vashist P, Tandon R, Pandey RM, Bhardawaj A, Menon V, et al. Prevalence of Myopia and Its Risk Factors in Urban School Children in Delhi: The North India Myopia Study (NIM Study). PLoS ONE. 2015;10(2):e0117349.
Ojaimi E, Rose KA, Smith W, Morgan IG, Martin FJ, Mitchell P. Methods for a Population-Based Study of Myopia and Other Eye Conditions in School Children: The Sydney Myopia Study. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2005;12(1):59–69.
You QS, Wu LJ, Duan JL, Luo YX, Liu LJ, Li X, et al. Factors Associated with Myopia in School Children in China: The Beijing Childhood Eye Study. PLOS ONE. 2012;7(12):e52668.
Sannapaneni Krishnaiah, Maramula Srinivas, Rohit C Khanna, Gullapalli N Rao. Prevalence and risk factors for refractive errors in the South Indian adult population: The Andhra Pradesh Eye disease study. Clinical Ophthalmol. 2009;3:17–27.
Lee Y-Y, Lo C-T, Sheu S-J, Lin JL. What Factors are Associated with Myopia in Young Adults? A Survey Study in Taiwan Military Conscripts Factors Associated with Myopia in Young Adults. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54(2):1026–33.