Is vitamin D deficiency contributing to high predisposition to non-communicable diseases in Indians? A review article
Keywords:Vitamin D, Non-communicable diseases, Diabetes, Hypertension, Cancer, Pregnancy
Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in Indians. The role of vitamin D in infectious diseases is a well-known fact. However, more recently, several studies have linked vitamin D deficiency with various non-communicable diseases like hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer and psychiatric illnesses amongst others. Indians are known to be prone to developing non-communicable diseases so a co-existing vitamin D deficiency will lead to a synergistic effect towards developing the same. Since vitamin D deficiency is completely preventable, opportunistic screening of people, screening the vulnerable population like the pregnant women and the elderly, patients with hepatic or renal failure, patients on retroviral or immunosuppressant therapy can be useful. Health education and promotion activities should be done to bring awareness in the community. This might as well reduce the growing burden of non-communicable diseases in India.
Norman W. Vitamin D: The Calcium Homeostatic Steroid Hormone, New York: Academic Press; 1979.
Lee JH, O’Keefe JH, Bell D, Hensrud DD, Holick MF. Vitamin D deficiency: an important, common, and easily treatable cardiovascular risk factor? J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008;52:1949–56.
Holick MF. High prevalence of vitamin D in adequacy and implications for health. Mayo Clin Proc. 2006;81:353–73.
Malabanan A, Veronikis IE, Holick MF. Redefining vitamin D insufficiency. Lancet.1998;351:805–6.
Chapuy MC, Preziosi P, Maamer M, Arnaud S, Galan P, Hercberg S, Meunier PJ. Prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in an adult normal population. OsteoporosInt. 1997;7:439–43.
Nesby-O’Dell S, Scanlon KS, Cogswell ME, Gillespie C, Hollis BW, Looker AC, et al. Hypovitaminosis D prevalence and determinant samong African American and white women of reproductive age: third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey,1988–1994. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;76:187–92.
Holick MF. Vitamin D deficiency. N Engl J Med. 2007;357(3):266-81.
Zittermann A. Vitamin D and disease prevention with special reference to cardiovascular disease. Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 2006;92:39–48.
Glerup H, Mikkelsen K, Poulsen L, Hass E, Overbeck S, Andersen H, et al. Hypovitaminosis D myopathy without biochemical signs of osteomalacic bone involvement. Calcif Tissue Int. 2000;66(6):419-24.
Lips P. Vitamin D deficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism in the elderly: consequences for bone loss and fractures and therapeutic implications. Endocr Rev. 2001;22:477–501.
Namgung R, Tsang RC. Bone in the pregnant mother and newborn at birth. Clin Chim Acta. 2003;333:1–11.
Specker BL. Do North American women need supplemental vitamin D during pregnancy or lactation? Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;59:484– 90.
McGrath JJ, Burne TH, Féron F, Mackay-Sim A, Eyles DW. Developmental Vitamin D Deficiency and Risk of Schizophrenia: A 10-Year Update. Schizophrenia Bulletin. 2010;36(6):1073-8.
Barker DJP. Mothers, babies and health in later life. 2nd ed. Edinburgh, United Kingdom: Churchill Livingstone; 1998.
Li YC, Kong J, Wei M, Chen ZF, Liu SQ, Cao LP. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D(3) is a negative endocrine regulator of the renin-angiotensin system. J Clin Invest. 2002;110(2):229-38.
Fleck A. Latitude and ischaemic heart disease. Lancet. 1989;1:613.
Rostand SG. Ultraviolet light may contribute to geographic and racial blood pressure differences. Hypertension. 1997;30(2):150–6.
Kendrick J, Targher G, Smits G, Chonchol M. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D deficiency is independently associated with cardiovascular disease in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Atherosclerosis. 2009;205(1):255-60.
Scragg R, Sowers M, Bell C. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, ethnicity, and blood pressure in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Am J Hypertens. 2007;20:713–9.
Martins D, Wolf M, Pan D, Zadshir A, Tareen N, Thadhani R, Felsenfeld A, et al. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and the serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the United States: data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167(11):1159-65.
Kim DH, Sabour S, Sagar UN, Adams S, Whellan DJ. Prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in cardiovascular diseases (from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001 to 2004). Am J Cardiol. 2008;102(11):1540-4.
Wang TJ, Pencina MJ, Booth SL, Jacques PF, Ingelsson E, Lanier K, et al. Vitamin D deficiency and risk of cardiovascular disease. Circulation. 2008;117(4):503-11.
Pilz S, Dobnig H, Fischer JE, Wellnitz B, Seelhorst U, Boehm BO, März W. Low vitamin D levels predict stroke in patients referred to coronary angiography. Stroke. 2008;39(9):2611-3.
Pilz S, März W, Wellnitz B, Seelhorst U, Fahrleitner-Pammer A, Dimai HP. Association of vitamin D deficiency with heart failure and sudden cardiac death in a large cross-sectional study of patients referred for coronary angiography. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93(10):3927-35.
Sooy K, Schermerhorn T, Noda M, Surana M, Rhoten WB, Meyer M, et al. Calbindin-D28k Controls [Ca2+] i and Insulin Release Evidence obtained from calbindin-d28k knockout mice and β cell lines. J Biological Chem. 1999;274(48):34343-9.
Norman AW, Frankel JB, Heldt AM, Grodsky GM. Vitamin D deficiency inhibits pancreatic secretion of insulin. Science. 1980;209(4458):823-5.
Liu E, Meigs JB, Pittas AG, McKeown NM, Economos CD, Booth SL, et al. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin d is associated with markers of the insulin resistant phenotype in nondiabetic adults. J Nutr. 2009;139(2):329-34.
Boucher BJ, Mannan N, Noonan K, Hales CN, Evans SJ. Glucose intolerance and impairment of insulin secretion in relation to vitamin D deficiency in east London Asians. Diabetologia. 1995;38(10):1239-45.
Hyppönen E, Läärä E, Reunanen A, Järvelin MR, Virtanen SM. Intake of vitamin D and risk of type 1 diabetes: a birth-cohort study. Lancet. 2001;358:1500–3.
Thorne J, Campbell MJ. The vitamin D receptor in cancer. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. 2008;67(2):115-27.
Moreno J, Krishnan AV, Feldman D. Molecular mechanisms mediating the antiproliferative effects of vitamin D in prostate cancer. J Steroid Biochem Molecular Biol. 2005;97(1–2):31–6.
Holt PR, Arber N, Halmos B, Forde K, Kissileff H, McGlynn KA, et al. Colonic epithelial cell proliferation decreases with increasing levels of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prevention. 2002;11(1):113–9.
Ma Y, Zhang P, Wang F, Yang J, Liu Z, Qin H. Association between vitamin D and risk of colorectal cancer: a systematic review of prospective studies. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29(28):3775-82.
Gandini S1, Boniol M, Haukka J, Byrnes G, Cox B, Sneyd MJ, et al. Meta-analysis of observational studies of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and colorectal, breast and prostate cancer and colorectal adenoma. Int J Cancer. 2011;128(6):1414-24.
Woolcott CG, Wilkens LR, Nomura AM, Horst RL, Goodman MT, Murphy SP, et al. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and the risk of colorectal cancer: the multiethnic cohort study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prevent. 2010;19(1):130-4.
Jenab M, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Ferrari P, van Duijnhoven FJ, Norat T, Pischon T, et al. Association between pre-diagnostic circulating vitamin D concentration and risk of colorectal cancer in European populations: a nested case-control study. BMJ. 2010;340:5500.
Gorham E, Garland C, Garland F. Acid haze air pollution and breast and colon cancer in 20 Canadian cities. Can J Public Health. 1989;80:96–100.
Garland F, Garland C, Gorham E, Young J Jr. Geographic variation in breast cancer mortality in the United States: a hypothesis involving exposure to solar radiation. Prev Med. 1990;19:614–22.
Shin MH, Holmes MD, Hankinson SE, Wu K, Colditz GA, Willett WC. Intake of dairy products, calcium, and vitamin D and risk of breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002;94(17):1301–1.
Lipkin M, Newmark HL. Vitamin D, calcium and prevention of breast cancer: a review. J Am Coll Nutr. 1999;18(5):392–7.
Newmark HL. Vitamin D adequacy: a possible relationship to breast cancer. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1994;364:109–14.
Lefkowitz ES, Garland CF. Sunlight, vitamin D, and ovarian cancer mortality rates in US women. Int J Epidemiol. 1994;23(6):1133–6.
Grant WB. An estimate of premature cancer mortality in the US because of inadequate doses of solar ultraviolet-B radiation. Cancer. 2002;94(6):1867–75.
Gorham ED, Garland FC, Garland CF. Sunlight and breast cancer incidence in the USSR. Int J Epidemiol. 1990;19(4):820–4.
Schwartz GG, Hulka BS. Is vitamin D deficiency a risk factor for prostate cancer? (Hypothesis). Anticancer Res. 1990;10(5):1307–11.
John EM, Dreon DM, Koo J, Schwartz GG. Residential sunlight exposure is associated with a decreased risk of prostate cancer. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2004;89–90(1–5):549–52.
Hanchette CL, Schwartz GG. Geographic patterns of prostate cancer mortality. Evidence for a protective effect of ultraviolet radiation. Cancer. 1992; 70(12):2861–9.